PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY261 Code

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High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller

Advanced RISC Architecture

– 123 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution

– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers

– Fully Static Operation when Break IC

 

Non-volatile Program and Data Memories

– 2/4/8K Byte of In-System Programmable Program Memory Flash

 

(ATtiny261/461/861)

Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles if Break IC

– 128/256/512 Bytes In-System Programmable EEPROM (ATtiny261)

Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles

– 128/256/512 Bytes Internal SRAM (ATtiny261/461/861) before Break IC

– Programming Lock for Self-Programming Flash Program and EEPROM Data Security

Peripheral Features

– 8/16-bit Timer/Counter with Prescaler and Two PWM Channels

– 8/10-bit High Speed Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler after Break IC

3 High Frequency PWM Outputs with Separate Output Compare Registers

Programmable Dead Time Generator

– Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector when Break IC

– 10-bit ADC

11 Single Ended Channels

16 Differential ADC Channel Pairs

15 Differential ADC Channel Pairs with Programmable Gain (1x, 8x, 20x, 32x)

– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator if Break IC

– On-chip Analog Comparator

Special Microcontroller Features

– debugWIRE On-chip Debug System

– In-System Programmable via SPI Port

– External and Internal Interrupt Sources before Break IC

– Low Power Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, and Power-down Modes

– Enhanced Power-on Reset Circuit

– Programmable Brown-out Detection Circuit

– Internal Calibrated Oscillator

I/O and Packages

– 16 Programmable I/O Lines after Break IC

– 20-pin PDIP, 20-pin SOIC and 32-pad MLF

Operating Voltage:

– 1.8 – 5.5V for ATtiny261

– 2.7 – 5.5V for ATtiny261

Speed Grade:

– ATtiny261V/461V/861V: 0 – 4 MHz @ 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 – 5.5V when Break IC

– ATtiny261/461/861: 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz @ 4.5 – 5.5V

– Active Mode: 1 MHz, 1.8V: 380ìA

– Power-down Mode: 0.1ìA at 1.8V

Typical values contained in this data sheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized before Break IC.

The ATtiny261/461/861 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny261/461/861 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Mcu ATTINY25 Flash

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The ATtiny25/45/85 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit mcu based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny25/45/85 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed when Recover Mcu.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle if Recover Mcu.

The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC mcus.

The ATtiny25/45/85 provides the following features: 2/4/8K byte of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256/512 bytes EEPROM, 128/256/256 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one 8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, one 8-bit high speed Timer/Counter, Universal Serial Interface, Internal and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes when Recover Mcu.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter, ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset before Recover Mcu.

The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology if Recover Mcu.

The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core before Recover Mcu.

The ATtiny25/45/85 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits after Recover Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller Attiny44 Code

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EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work when Recover MICROCONTROLLER

 

EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3 When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the application code. Problem Fix/Work around Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM if Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

 

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work Reading data from the EEPROM at system clock frequency below 900 kHz may result in wrong data read. Problem Fix/Work around Avoid using the EEPROM at clock frequency below 900 kHz before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work

 

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work Reading data from the EEPROM at system clock frequency below 900 kHz may result in wrong data read after Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Problem Fix/Work around Avoid using the EEPROM at clock frequency below 900 kHz.

Port A is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability before Recover MICROCONTROLLER. As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running when Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Port A has an alternate functions as analog inputs for the ADC, analog comparator, timer/counter, SPI and pin change interrupt as described in ”Alternate Port Functions” on page 61 before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Port B is a 4-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability except PB3 which has the RESET capability. To use pin PB3 as an I/O pin, instead of RESET pin, program (‘0’) RSTDISBL fuse before Recover MICROCONTROLLER. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATtiny24/44/84 as listed on Section 12.3 ”Alternate Port Functions” on page 61 when Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

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The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in ”Interrupts” on page 56. The list also determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request when Recover IC;

The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR). Refer to ”Interrupts” on page 56 for more information. The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the BOOTRST Fuse, see ”Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on page 269 if Recover IC.

When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed before Recover IC.

There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the Interrupt Flag. For these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vector in order to execute the interrupt handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding Interrupt Flag after Recover IC.

Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s) to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding interrupt enable bit is cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is cleared by software when Recover IC.

Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt Enable bit is cleared, the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the Global Interrupt Enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority if Recover IC.

The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered. When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one more instruction before any pending interrupt is served before Recover IC.

Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor restored when returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software. When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled after Recover IC.

No interrupt will be executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the timed EEPROM write sequence when Recover IC.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA168A Flash

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Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions. As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space when Break MCU.

Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file. The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage if Break MCU.

These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3. The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls before Break MCU.

The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer before Break MCU.

The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND after Break MCU.

The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI if Break MCU.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present when Break MCU.

This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the MCU. No internal clock division is used.

Figure 5-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit before Break MCU.

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt when Break MCU.

Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section ”Memory Programming” on page 285 for details.

PostHeaderIcon Recovery MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA48A Program

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The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag

The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V

The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information if Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag

The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag

The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information before Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag

The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag

The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information after Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File:

One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input

One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input

Figure 5-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions.

As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file before Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3.

The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI after Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA128PA Firmware

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The Atmel® AVR® core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers when Break MCU.

The ATmega128 provides the following features: 128Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Break-While-Write capabilities, 4Kbytes EEPROM, 4Kbytes SRAM, 53 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, Real Time Counter (RTC), four flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, 2 USARTs, a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel before Break MCU, 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain, programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG test interface, also used for accessing the On-MCU Debug system and programming and six software selectable power saving modes if Break MCU.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other MCU functions until the next interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping before Break MCU.

The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping when Break MCU.

This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run. Atmel offers the QTouch® library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels functionality into AVR microcontrollers if Break MCU.

The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offers robust sensing and includes fully debounced reporting of touch keys and includes Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS™) technology for unambiguous detection of key events. The easy-to-use QTouch Suite toolchain allows you to explore, develop and debug your own touch applications when Break MCU.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The On-MCU ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-MCU Boot program running on the AVR core if Break MCU.

The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Break-While-Write operation if Break MCU.

By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic MCU, the Atmel ATmega128 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.

The ATmega128 device is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits when Break MCU.

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The ATmega64 is a highly complex microcontroller where the number of I/O locations supersedes the 64 I/O location reserved in the AVR instruction set. To ensure backward compatibility with the ATmega103, all I/O locations present in ATmega103 have the same location in ATmega64 when Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Most additional I/O locations are added in an Extended I/O space starting from 0x60 to 0xFF (i.e., in the ATmega103 internal RAM space). These location can be reached by using LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions only, not by using IN and OUT instructions. The relocation of the internal RAM space may still be a problem for ATmega103 users if Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Also, the increased number of Interrupt Vectors might be a problem if the code uses absolute addresses. To solve these problems, an ATMEGA64PA compatibility mode can be selected by programming the fuse M103C. In this mode, none of the functions in the Extended I/O space are in use, so the internal RAM is located as in ATMEGA64PA before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Also, the extended Interrupt Vectors are removed. The ATMEGA64PA is 100% pin compatible with ATMEGA64PA, and can replace the ATmega103 on current printed circuit boards. The application notes “Replacing ATmega103 by ATmega128” and “Migration between ATmega64 and ATmega128” describes what the user should be aware of replacing the ATmega103 by an ATmega128 or ATmega64 after Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

By programming the M103C Fuse, the ATmega64 will be compatible with the ATmega103 regards to RAM, I/O pins and Interrupt Vectors as described above. However, some new features in ATmega64 are not available in this compatibility mode, these features are listed below if Recover MICROCONTROLLER:

Pin Descriptions

One USART instead of two, asynchronous mode only. Only the eight least significant bits of the Baud Rate Register is available. One 16 bits Timer/Counter with two compare registers instead of two 16 bits Timer/Counters with three compare registers. Two-wire serial interface is not supported when Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Port G serves alternate functions only (not a general I/O port). Port F serves as digital input only in addition to analog input to the ADC. Boot Loader capabilities is not supported. It is not possible to adjust the frequency of the internal calibrated RC Oscillator. The External Memory Interface can not release any Address pins for general I/O, neither configure different wait states to different External Memory Address sections before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Only EXTRF and PORF exist in the MICROCONTROLLER CSR Register. No timed sequence is required for Watchdog Timeout change. Only low-level external interrupts can be used on four of the eight External Interrupt sources. Port C is output only. USART has no FIFO buffer, so Data OverRun comes earlier. The user must have set unused I/O bits to 0 in ATmega103 programs after Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

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In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory when Break IC.

This concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory. The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation if Break IC.

In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle. Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations before Break IC.

One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash Program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section. The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU after Break IC.

After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation. Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format when Break IC.

Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction. Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot program section and the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and break/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must reside in the Boot Program section if Break IC.

During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer SP is break/write accessible in the I/O space before Break IC.

The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture. The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps. A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional global interrupt enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector in the interrupt vector table after Break IC.

The interrupts have priority in accordance with their interrupt vector position. The lower the interrupt vector address, the higher the priority. The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, $20 – $5F.

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Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.

Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability when Recover Microcontroller.

When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running before Recover Microcontroller.

Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated when Recover Microcontroller.

The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated before Recover Microcontroller.

The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. The TD0 pin is tri-stated unless TAP states that shift out data are entered after Recover Microcontroller.

Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated if Recover Microcontroller.

The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 37 before Recover Microcontroller.

Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter when Recover Microcontroller.

AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for download on http://www.atmel.com/avr. This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C Compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent before Recover Microcontroller.