PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA168A Flash

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Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions. As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file. The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage.

These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3. The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls before Break MCU.

The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI if Break MCU.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present. This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the MCU. No internal clock division is used.

Figure 5-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit before Break IC.

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section ”Memory Programming” on page 285 for details.

PostHeaderIcon Recovery Microcontroller ATmega48A Program

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The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag

The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V

The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag

The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag

The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information before Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag

The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag

The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information after Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File:

One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input

One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input

Figure 5-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.

Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions.

As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file before Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3.

The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer when Recover MCU.

The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI. The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA128PA Firmware

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The Atmel® AVR® core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. The ATmega128 provides the following features: 128Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Break-While-Write capabilities, 4Kbytes EEPROM, 4Kbytes SRAM, 53 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, Real Time Counter (RTC), four flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, 2 USARTs, a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel before Break MCU, 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain, programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG test interface, also used for accessing the On-MCU Debug system and programming and six software selectable power saving modes if Break MCU.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other MCU functions until the next interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping when Break MCU.

This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run. Atmel offers the QTouch® library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels functionality into AVR microcontrollers. The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offers robust sensing and includes fully debounced reporting of touch keys and includes Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS™) technology for unambiguous detection of key events. The easy-to-use QTouch Suite toolchain allows you to explore, develop and debug your own touch applications when Break IC.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The On-MCU ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-MCU Boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Break-While-Write operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic MCU, the Atmel ATmega128 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. The ATmega128 device is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits when Break MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller Atmega64pa Binary

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The ATmega64 is a highly complex microcontroller where the number of I/O locations supersedes the 64 I/O location reserved in the AVR instruction set. To ensure backward compatibility with the ATmega103, all I/O locations present in ATmega103 have the same location in ATmega64.

Most additional I/O locations are added in an Extended I/O space starting from 0x60 to 0xFF (i.e., in the ATmega103 internal RAM space). These location can be reached by using LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions only, not by using IN and OUT instructions. The relocation of the internal RAM space may still be a problem for ATmega103 users. Also, the increased number of Interrupt Vectors might be a problem if the code uses absolute addresses. To solve these problems, an ATMEGA64PA compatibility mode can be selected by programming the fuse M103C. In this mode, none of the functions in the Extended I/O space are in use, so the internal RAM is located as in ATMEGA64PA before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Also, the extended Interrupt Vectors are removed. The ATMEGA64PA is 100% pin compatible with ATMEGA64PA, and can replace the ATmega103 on current printed circuit boards. The application notes “Replacing ATmega103 by ATmega128” and “Migration between ATmega64 and ATmega128” describes what the user should be aware of replacing the ATmega103 by an ATmega128 or ATmega64. By programming the M103C Fuse, the ATmega64 will be compatible with the ATmega103 regards to RAM, I/O pins and Interrupt Vectors as described above. However, some new features in ATmega64 are not available in this compatibility mode, these features are listed:

Pin Descriptions

One USART instead of two, asynchronous mode only. Only the eight least significant bits of the Baud Rate Register is available. One 16 bits Timer/Counter with two compare registers instead of two 16 bits Timer/Counters with three compare registers. Two-wire serial interface is not supported when Recover MCU.

Port G serves alternate functions only (not a general I/O port). Port F serves as digital input only in addition to analog input to the ADC. Boot Loader capabilities is not supported. It is not possible to adjust the frequency of the internal calibrated RC Oscillator. The External Memory Interface can not release any Address pins for general I/O, neither configure different wait states to different External Memory Address sections. Only EXTRF and PORF exist in the MICROCONTROLLER CSR Register. No timed sequence is required for Watchdog Timeout change. Only low-level external interrupts can be used on four of the eight External Interrupt sources. Port C is output only. USART has no FIFO buffer, so Data OverRun comes earlier. The user must have set unused I/O bits to 0 in ATmega103 programs after Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATMEGA32A Software

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In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory. The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle. Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations before Break IC.

One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash Program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section. The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation. Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format when Break IC.

Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction. Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot program section and the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and break/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must reside in the Boot Program section. During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer SP is break/write accessible in the I/O space.

The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture. The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps. A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional global interrupt enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector in the interrupt vector table after Break IC.

The interrupts have priority in accordance with their interrupt vector position. The lower the interrupt vector address, the higher the priority. The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, $20 – $5F.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller ATMEGA32PA Firmware

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Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.

Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the A/D Converter is not used. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability when Recover Microcontroller.

When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running before Recover Microcontroller.

Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated when Recover Microcontroller.

The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated before Recover Microcontroller.

The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. The TD0 pin is tri-stated unless TAP states that shift out data are entered after Recover Microcontroller.

Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated if Recover Microcontroller.

The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 37 before Recover Microcontroller.

Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter when Recover Microcontroller.

AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for download on http://www.atmel.com/avr. This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C Compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent before Recover Microcontroller.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA16PA Flash

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First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices  when Break Mcu.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion.

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register(TCNTx) is 0x00 if Break Mcu.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register(TCCRx), asynchronous Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx) before Break Mcu.

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround after Break Mcu

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible. Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to break out the contents of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan chain if Break Mcu.

Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while breaking the Device ID Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain. If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega16 must be the fist device in the chain when Break Mcu.

Breaking EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request.

Breaking EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request.

Problem Fix / Workaround before Break Mcu

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR.

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion.

 

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register(TCNTx) is 0x00 after Break Mcu.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register(TCCRx), asynchronous Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx).

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround when Break Mcu

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible.

Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to break out the contents of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan chain. Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while breaking the Device ID

Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain. If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega16 must be the fist device in the chain if Break Mcu.

Breaking EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request.

Breaking EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA16A Software

Recover MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA16A Software

 

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First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices.

Problem Fix/Workaround when Recover MICROCONTROLLER

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion.

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register(TCNTx) is 0x00 if Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register(TCCRx), asynchronous Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx) before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround after Recover MICROCONTROLLER

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible.

Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to recover out the contents of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan chain. Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while recovering the Device ID Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain before Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega16 must be the fist device in the chain.

Recovering EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request.

Recovering EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request if Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR.

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed when Recover MICROCONTROLLER

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer IDCODE masks data from TDI input

Recovering EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed before Recover MICROCONTROLLER

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion after Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU TS87C58X2 Heximal

Recover Mcu TS87C58X2 Heximal

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The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when the multiprocessor communication feature is enabled (SM2 bit in SCON register is set). Implemented in hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the serial port to examine the address of each incoming command frame when Recover Mcu.

Only when the serial port recognizes its own address, the receiver sets RI bit in SCON register to generate an interrupt. This ensures that the CPU is not interrupted by command frames addressed to other devices if Recover Mcu.

If desired, you may enable the automatic address recognition feature in mode 1. In this configuration, the stop bit takes the place of the ninth data bit. Bit RI is set only when the received command frame address matches the device’s address and is terminated by a valid stop bit before Recover Mcu.

To support automatic address recognition, a device is identified by a given address and a broadcast address. Each device has an individual address that is specified in SADDR register; the SADEN register is a mask byte that contains don’t-care bits (defined by zeros) to form the device’s given address after Recover Mcu.

The don’t-care bits provide the flexibility to address one or more slaves at a time. The following example illustrates how a given address is formed. To address a device by its individual address, the SADEN mask byte must be 1111 1111b if Recover Mcu.

The SADEN byte is selected so that each slave may be addressed separately. For slave A, bit 0 (the LSB) is a don’t-care bit; for slaves B and C, bit 0 is a 1. To communicate with slave A only, the master must send an address where bit 0 is clear (e.g. 1111 0000b) when Recover Mcu.

For slave A, bit 1 is a 1; for slaves B and C, bit 1 is a don’t care bit. To communicate with slaves B and C, but not slave A, the master must send an address with bits 0 and 1 both set (e.g. 1111 0011b). To communicate with slaves A, B and C, the master must send an address with bit 0 set, bit 1 clear, and bit 2 clear (e.g. 1111 0001b) before Recover Mcu.

On reset, the SADDR and SADEN registers are initialized to 00h, i.e. the given and broadcast addresses are XXXX XXXXb (all don’t-care bits). This ensures that the serial port will reply to any address, and so, that it is backwards compatible with the 80C51 mcus that do not support automatic address recognition after Recover Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC TS80C58X2 Code

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Software can take advantage of the additional data pointers to both increase speed and reduce code size, for example, block operations (copy, compare, search …) are well served by using one data pointer as a ’source’ pointer and the other one as a “destination” pointer when Break IC.

INC is a short (2 bytes) and fast (12 clocks) way to manipulate the DPS bit in the AUXR1 SFR. However, note that the INC instruction does not directly force the DPS bit to a particular state, but simply toggles it if Break IC.

In simple routines, such as the block move example, only the fact that DPS is toggled in the proper sequence matters, not its actual value. In other words, the block move routine works the same whether DPS is ‘0’ or ‘1’ on entry. Observe that without the last instruction (INC AUXR1), the routine will exit with DPS in the opposite state before Break IC.

The timer 2 in the TS80C54/58X2 is compatible with the timer 2 in the 80C52. It is a 16-bit timer/counter: the count is maintained by two eight-bit timer registers, TH2 and TL2, connected in cascade. It is controlled by T2CON register (See Table 6) and T2MOD register (See Table 7) after Break IC.

Timer 2 operation is similar to Timer 0 and Timer 1. C/T2 selects FOSC/12 (timer operation) or external pin T2 (counter operation) as the timer clock input. Setting TR2 allows TL2 to be incremented by the selected input before Break IC.

Timer 2 has 3 operating modes: capture, autoreload and Baud Rate Generator. These modes are selected by the combination of RCLK, TCLK and CP/RL2 (T2CON), as described in the Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers 8-bit Microcontroller Hardware description after Break IC.

Refer to the Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers 8-bit Microcontroller Hardware description for the description of Capture and Baud Rate Generator Modes. In TS80C54/58X2 Timer 2 includes the following enhancements:

Auto-reload mode with up or down counter

Programmable clock-output before Break IC

The auto-reload mode configures timer 2 as a 16-bit timer or event counter with automatic reload. If DCEN bit in T2MOD is cleared, timer 2 behaves as in 80C52 (refer to the Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers 8-bit Microcontroller Hardware description). If DCEN bit is set, timer 2 acts as an Up/down timer/counter as shown in Figure 4. In this mode the T2EX pin controls the direction of count when Break IC.

When T2EX is high, timer 2 counts up. Timer overflow occurs at FFFFh which sets the TF2 flag and generates an interrupt request. The overflow also causes the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers to be loaded into the timer registers TH2 and TL2.

When T2EX is low, timer 2 counts down. Timer underflow occurs when the count in the timer registers TH2 and TL2 equals the value stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers. The underflow sets TF2 flag and reloads FFFFh into the timer registers when Break IC.

 

The EXF2 bit toggles when timer 2 overflows or underflows according to the the direction of the count. EXF2 does not generate any interrupt. This bit can be used to provide 17-bit resolution.