Archive for the ‘Copy Microcontroller’ Category

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller ATMEGA644PA Firmware

We can reverse engineering microcontroller ATMEGA644PA firmware, please view the microcontroller ATMEGA644PA features for your reference:
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to “External Interrupts” on page 75 for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs until the wake-up becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after having been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the same CKSEL Fuses that define the Reset Time-out period, as described in “Clock Sources” on page 40. When the SM2..0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-save mode before reverse engineering microcontroller ATMEGA644PA firmware.
This mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception: If Timer/Counter2 is enabled, it will keep running during sleep. The device can wake up from either Timer Overflow or Output Compare event from Timer/Counter2 if the corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in TIMSK2, and the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set.
If Timer/Counter2 is not running, Power-down mode is recommended instead of Power-save mode. The Timer/Counter2 can be clocked both synchronously and asynchronously in Power-save mode. If the Timer/Counter2 is not using the asynchronous clock, the Timer/Counter Oscillator is stopped during sleep when REVERSE ENGINEERING MICROCONTROLLER.
If the Timer/Counter2 is not using the synchronous clock, the clock source is stopped during sleep. Note that even if the synchronous clock is running in Power-save, this clock is only available for the Timer/Counter2. When the SM2..0 bits are 110 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-down with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. From Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles before reverse engineering microcontroller ATMEGA644PA firmware.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA128PA Firmware

We can Break MCU ATMEGA128PA Firmware, please view the MCU ATMEGA128PA features for your reference:

The Atmel® AVR® core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. The ATmega128 provides the following features: 128Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Break-While-Write capabilities, 4Kbytes EEPROM, 4Kbytes SRAM, 53 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, Real Time Counter (RTC), four flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, 2 USARTs, a byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel before Break MCU, 10-bit ADC with optional differential input stage with programmable gain, programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG test interface, also used for accessing the On-MCU Debug system and programming and six software selectable power saving modes if Break MCU.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other MCU functions until the next interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping when Break MCU.

This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run. Atmel offers the QTouch® library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels functionality into AVR microcontrollers. The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offers robust sensing and includes fully debounced reporting of touch keys and includes Adjacent Key Suppression® (AKS™) technology for unambiguous detection of key events. The easy-to-use QTouch Suite toolchain allows you to explore, develop and debug your own touch applications when Break IC.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The On-MCU ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-MCU Boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Break-While-Write operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic MCU, the Atmel ATmega128 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. The ATmega128 device is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits when Break MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU AT87LV51 Software

We can Break Mcu AT87LV51 Software, please view the Mcu AT87LV51 features for your reference:

The AT87LV51 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit mcu with 4K bytes of QuickFlash One-Time Programmable (OTP) Break Only memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout.

The on-chip QuickFlash allows the program memory to be user programmed by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with QuickFlash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT87LV51 is a powerful mcu that provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

The AT87LV51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of QuickFlash OTP program memory, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five-vector, 2-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT87LV51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software-selectable power-saving modes.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier, which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator.

Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

In Idle Mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the Special Function registers remains unchanged during this mode. The Idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset when Break IC.

It should be noted that when Idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited.

To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC12C509A Binary

Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC12C509A Binary

 

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC12C509A Binary, please view the Microcontroller PIC12C509A features for your reference:

PIC12C5XX memory is organized into program memory and data memory. For devices with more than 512 bytes of program memory, a paging scheme is used if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

Program memory pages are accessed using one STATUS register bit. For the PIC12C509, PIC12C509A, PICCR509A and PIC12CE519 with a data memory register file of more than 32 registers, a banking scheme is used. Data memory banks are accessed using the File Select Register (FSR) when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The PIC12C5XX devices have a 12-bit Program Counter (PC) capable of addressing a 2K x 12 program memory space. Only the first 512 x 12 (0000h-01FFh) for the PIC12C508, PIC12C508A and PIC12CE518 and 1K x 12 (0000h-03FFh) for the PIC12C509, PIC12C509A, PIC12CR509A, and PIC12CE519 are physically implemented after Reverse engineering Microcontroller. Refer to Figure 4-1. Accessing a location above these boundaries will cause a wrap around within the first 512 x 12 space (PIC12C508, PIC12C508A and PIC12CE518) or 1K x 12 space (PIC12C509, PIC12C509A, PIC12CR509A and PIC12CE519) if Reverse engineering Microcontroller. The effective reset vector is at 000h, (see Figure 4-1). Location 01FFh (PIC12C508, PIC12C508A and PIC12CE518) or location 03FFh (PIC12C509, PIC12C509A, PIC12CR509A and PIC12CE519) contains the internal clock oscillator calibration value. This value should never be overwritten when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

As a program instruction is executed, the Program Counter (PC) will contain the address of the next program instruction to be executed. The PC value is increased by one every instruction cycle, unless an instruction changes the PC when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

For a GOTO instruction, bits 8:0 of the PC are provided by the GOTO instruction word. The PC Latch (PCL) is mapped to PC<7:0>. Bit 5 of the STATUS register provides page information to bit 9 of the PC (Figure 4- 8).For a CALL instruction, or any instruction where the PCL is the destination before Reverse engineering Microcontroller, bits 7:0 of the PC again are provided by the instruction word. However, PC<8> does not come from the instruction word, but is always cleared (Figure 4-8).

Instructions where the PCL is the destination, or Modify PCL instructions, include MOVWF PC, ADDWF PC, and BSF PC,5. The Program Counter is set upon a RESET, which means that the PC addresses the last location in the last page i.e., after Reverse engineering Microcontroller the oscillator calibration instruction. After executing MOVLW XX, the PC will roll over to location 00h, and begin executing user code.

The STATUS register page preselect bits are cleared upon a RESET, which means that page 0 is pre-selected. Therefore, upon a RESET, a GOTO instruction will automatically cause the program to jump to page 0 until the value of the page bits is altered if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller PIC16C558A Eeprom

Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C558A Eeprom

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C558A Eeprom, please view the Microcontroller PIC16C558A features for your reference:

The clock input (OSC1/CLKIN pin) is internally divided by four to generate four non-overlapping quadrature clocks namely Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. Internally, the program counter (PC) is incremented every Q1 if Reverse engineering Microcontroller, the instruction is fetched from the program memory and latched into the instruction register in Q4. The instruction is decoded and executed during the following Q1 through Q4. The clocks and instruction execution flow are shown in Figure 3-2 after Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

An “Instruction Cycle” consists of four Q cycles (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4). The instruction fetch and execute are pipelined such that fetch takes one instruction cycle while decode and execute takes another instruction cycle when Reverse engineering Microcontroller. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction causes the program counter to change (e.g., GOTO) then two cycles are required to complete the instruction (Example 3-1) after Reverse engineering Microcontroller. A fetch cycle begins with the program counter (PC) incrementing in Q1.

In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched into the “Instruction Register (IR)” in cycle Q1. This instruction is then decoded and executed during the Q2, Q3, and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2 (operand read) and written during Q4 (destination write) if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The PIC16C55X(A) has a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. Only the first 512 x 14 (0000h – 01FFh) for the PIC16C554(A), 1K x 14 (0000h – 03FFh) for the PIC16C556A and 2K x 14 (0000h – 07FFh) for the PIC16C558(A) are physically implemented before Reverse engineering Microcontroller. Accessing a location above these boundaries will cause a wrap-around within the first 512 x 14 space PIC16C554(A) or 1K x 14 space PIC16C556A or 2K x 14 space PIC16C558(A). The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h (Figure 4-1, Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3) when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The data memory (Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5) is partitioned into two Banks which contain the general purpose registers and the special function registers. Bank 0 is selected when the RP0 bit is cleared. Bank 1 is selected when the RP0 bit (STATUS <5>) is set after Reverse engineering Microcontroller. The Special Function Registers are located in the first 32 locations of each Bank. Register locations 20-6Fh (Bank0) on the PIC16C554(A)/556A and 20-7Fh (Bank0) and A0-BFh (Bank1) on the PIC16C558(A) are general purpose registers implemented as static RAM when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

Some special purpose registers are mapped in Bank 1

PostHeaderIcon Read Chip PIC16C770 Eeprom

Read Chip PIC16C770 Eeprom

We can Read Chip PIC16C770 Eeprom, please view the Chip PIC16C770 features for your reference:

This document contains device-specific information. Additional information may be found in the PICmicroTM Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023), which may be obtained from your local Microchip Sales Representative or downloaded from the Microchip website if Read Chip. The Reference Manual should be considered a complementary document to this data sheet, and is highly recommended reading for a better understanding of the device architecture and operation of the peripheral modules after Read Chip.

There are two memory blocks in each of these PICmicro ® microcontrollers. Each block (Program Memory and Data Memory) has its own bus, so that concurrent access can occur. Additional information on device memory may be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, (DS33023) when Read Chip.

The PIC16C717/770/771 devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. The PIC16C717 and the PIC16C770 have 2K x 14 words of program memory after Read Chip.

The PIC16C771 has 4K x 14 words of program memory. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound.

The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h before Read Chip.

Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as static RAM. All implemented banks contain special function registers if Read Chip. Some frequently used special function registers from one bank are mirrored in another bank for code reduction and quicker access.

The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and Peripheral Modules for controlling the desired operation of the device. These registers are implemented as static RAM for Chip reading.

The special function registers can be classified into two sets; core (CPU) and peripheral. Those registers associated with the core functions are described in detail in this section. Those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in detail in that peripheral feature section after Read Chip.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller PIC16C717 Program

Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C717 Program

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C717 Program, please view the Microcontroller PIC16C717 features for your reference:

Microcontroller Core Features:

· High-performance RISC CPU

· Only 35 single word instructions to learn

· All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle when Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input

· Interrupt capability (up to 10 internal/external interrupt sources)

· Eight level deep hardware stack

· Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes

· Power-on Reset (POR)

· Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)

· Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation after Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Selectable oscillator options:

– INTRC – Internal RC, dual speed (4MHz and 37KHz) dynamically switchable for power savings

– ER – External resistor, dual speed (user selectable frequency and 37KHz) dynamically switchable for power savings

– EC – External clock

– HS – High speed crystal/resonator

– XT – Crystal/resonator

– LP – Low power crystal

· Low-power, high-speed CMOS EPROM technology

· In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ISCP) if Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Wide operating voltage range: 2.5V to 5.5V

· 15 I/O pins with individual control for:

– Direction (15 pins)

– Digital/Analog input (6 pins)

PORTB interrupt on change (8 pins)

– PORTB weak pull-up (8 pins)

– High voltage open drain (1 pin)

· Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges before Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Low-power consumption:

– < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz

– 22.5 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz

· Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler

· Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during sleep via external crystal/clock

· Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler after Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Enhanced Capture, Compare, PWM (ECCP) module

– Capture is 16 bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns

– Compare is 16 bit, max. resolution is 200 ns

– PWM max. resolution is 10 bit

– Enhanced PWM:

– Single, Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge output modes

– Digitally programmable deadband delay

· Analog-to-Digital converter:

– PIC16C770/771 12-bit resolution when Reverse engineering Microcontroller

– PIC16C717 10-bit resolution

· On-chip absolute bandgap voltage reference generator

· Programmable Brown-out Reset (PBOR) circuitry

· Programmable Low-Voltage Detection (PLVD) circuitry

· Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) with two modes of operation:

– 3-wire SPI™ (supports all 4 SPI modes)

– I2C™ compatible including master mode support only before Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Program Memory Reverse engineering (PMR) capability for look-up table, character string storage and checksum calculation purposes

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller PIC16C710 Code

Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C710 Code

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C710 Code, please view the Microcontroller PIC16C710 features for your reference:

· High-performance RISC CPU

· Only 35 single word instructions to learn

· All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle

· Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input DC – 200 ns instruction cycle

· Up to 2K x 14 words of Program Memory, up to 128 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) when Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Interrupt capability

· Eight level deep hardware stack

· Direct, indirect, and relative addressing modes

· Power-on Reset (POR)

· Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)

· Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation if Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Programmable code-protection

· Power saving SLEEP mode

· Selectable oscillator options

· Low-power, high-speed CMOS EPROM technology

· Fully static design

· Wide operating voltage range: 2.5V to 6.0V

· High Sink/Source Current 25/25 mA

· Commercial, Industrial and Extended temperature ranges after Reverse engineering Microcontroller

· Program Memory Parity Error Checking Circuitry with Parity Error Reset (PER) (PIC16C715)

· Low-power consumption:

– < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz

– 15 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz

– < 1 µA typical standby current

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PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller PIC16C76 Heximal

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller PIC16C76 Heximal, please view the Microcontroller PIC16C76 features for your reference:

Any instruction which writes, operates internally as a read followed by a write operation. The BCF and BSF instructions, for example, read the register into the CPU, execute the bit operation and write the result back to the register. Caution must be used when these instructions are applied to a port with both inputs and outputs defined after Reverse engineeringMicrocontroller. For example, a BSF operation on bit5 of PORTB will cause all eight bits of PORTB to be read into the CPU. Then the BSF operation takes place on bit5 and PORTB is written to the output latches. If another bit of PORTB is used as a bi-directional I/O pin (e.g., bit0) and it is defined as an input at this time, the input signal present on the pin itself would be read into the CPU and rewritten to the data latch of this particular pin, overwriting the previous content. As long as the pin stays in the input mode, no problem occurs. However, if bit0 is switched to an output, the content of the data latch may now be unknown if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

Reading the port register, reads the values of the port pins. Writing to the port register writes the value to the port latch. When using read-modify-write instructions (ex.BCF, BSF, etc.) on a port, the value of the port pins is read, the desired operation is done to this value, and this value is then written to the port latch before Reverse engineeringMicrocontroller.

Example 5-4 shows the effect of two sequential read-modify-write instructions on an I/O port. A pin actively outputting a Low or High should not be driven from external devices at the same time in order to change the level on this pin (“wired-or”, “wired-and”). The resulting high output currents may damage the chip after Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The actual write to an I/O port happens at the end of an instruction cycle, whereas for reading, the data must be valid at the beginning of the instruction cycle (Figure 5-10). Therefore, care must be exercised if a write followed by a read operation is carried out on the same I/ O port if Reverse engineering Microcontroller. The sequence of instructions should be such to allow the pin voltage to stabilize (load dependent) before the next instruction which causes that file to be read into the CPU is executed. Otherwise, the previous state of that pin may be read into the CPU rather than the new state. When in doubt, it is better to separate these instructions with a NOP or another instruction not accessing this I/O port when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

It can directly interface to an 8-bit microprocessor data bus. The external microprocessor can read or write the PORTD latch as an 8-bi t latch. Setting bit PSPMODE enables port pin RE0/RD/AN5 to be the RD input, RE1/WR/AN6 to be the WR input and RE2/CS/AN7 to be the CS (chip select) input. For this functionality, the corresponding data direction bits of the TRISE register (TRISE<2:0>) must be configured as inputs (set) and the A/D port configuration bits PCFG2:PCFG0 (ADCON1<2:0>) must be set, which will configure pins RE2:RE0 as digital I/O after Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

PostHeaderIcon Copy Chip PIC16C73A Program

We can Copy Chip PIC16C73A Program, please view the Chip PIC16C73A features for your reference:

The Synchronous Serial Port can be configured as either a 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) or the two-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) bus. The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) is also known as the Serial Communications Interface or SCI. Also a 5-channel high-speed 8-bit A/D is provided if Copy Chip.The 8-bit resolution is ideally suited for applications requiring low-cost analog interface, e.g. thermostat control, pressure sensing, etc.

The PIC16C74/74A devices have 192 bytes of RAM, while the PIC16C77 has 368 bytes of RAM. Each device has 33 I/O pins. In addition several peripheral features are available including: three timer/counters, two Capture/Compare/PWM modules and two serial ports after Copy Chip. The Synchronous Serial Port can be configured as either a 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) or the two-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) bus. The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) is also known as the Serial Communications Interface or SCI. An 8-bit Parallel Slave Port is provided. Also an 8-channel high-speed 8-bit A/D is provided after Copy Chip. The 8-bit resolution is ideally suited for applications requiring low-cost analog interface, e.g. thermostat control, pressure sensing, etc.

The PIC16C7X family has special features to reduce external components, thus reducing cost, enhancing system reliability and reducing power consumption. There are four oscillator options, of which the single pin RC oscillator provides a low-cost solution, the LP oscillator minimizes power consumption before Copy Chip, XT is a standard crystal, and the HS is for High Speed crystals. The SLEEP (power-down) feature provides a power saving mode. The user can wake up the chip from SLEEP through several external and internal interrupts and resets.

A highly reliable Watchdog Timer with its own on-chip RC oscillator provides protection against software lock-up after Reverse Engineering Microcontroller.

A UV erasable CERDIP packaged version is ideal for code development while the cost-effective One-Time-Programmable (OTP) version is suitable for production in any volume.

The PIC16C7X family fits perfectly in applications ranging from security and remote sensors to appliance control and automotive. The EPROM technology makes customization of application programs if Copy Chip (transmitter codes, motor speeds, receiver frequencies, etc.) extremely fast and convenient. The small footprint packages make this microcontroller series perfect for all applications with space limitations when Copy Chip. Low cost, low power, high performance, ease of use and I/O flexibility make the PIC16C7X very versatile even in areas where no microcontroller use has been considered before (e.g. timer functions, serial communication, capture and compare, PWM functions and coprocessor applications) after Copy chip.