Archive for the ‘Break IC’ Category

PostHeaderIcon Break Chip ATMEGA861P Code

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Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON (Table 2). Note that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for the receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode, as shown in Figure 4 when Break Chip ATMEGA861P Code.
The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode, in that a rollover in TH2 causes the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16 bit value in registers RCAP2H and RCAP2L, which are preset by code.
The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer 2’s overflow rate according to the following equation. The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. In most applications, it is configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0) before Break Chip ATMEGA861P Code.
The timer operation is different for Timer 2 when it is used as a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it increments every machine cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator frequency). As a baud rate generator, however, it increments every state time (at 1/2 the oscillator fre-quency).
The baud rate formula is given below. where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16 bit unsigned integer. Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in Figure 4 when Break chip code.
This figure is valid only if RCLK or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will not generate an interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in T2EX will set EXF2 but will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2) if Break Chip ATMEGA861P Code.
Thus when Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator, T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt. Note that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator mode, TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written to.
Under these conditions, the Timer is incremented every state time, and the results of a read or write may not be accurate. The RCAP2 registers may be read but should not be written to, because a write might overlap a reload and cause write and/or reload errors. The timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the Timer 2 or RCAP2 registers after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA861V Flash

We can break MCU ATMEGA861V flash, please view the MCU ATMEGA861V features for your reference:

A 50% duty cycle clock can be programmed to come out on P1.0, as shown in Figure 5. This pin, besides being a regular I/0 pin, has two alternate functions. It can be programmed to input the external clock for Timer/Counter 2 or to output a 50% duty cycle clock ranging from 61 Hz to 4 MHz at a 16 MHz operating frequency when break MCU flash.
To configure the Timer/Counter 2 as a clock generator, bit C/T2 (T2CON.1) must be cleared and bit T2OE (T2MOD.1) must be set. Bit TR2 (T2CON.2) starts and stops the timer if break MCU flash.
The clock-out frequency depends on the oscillator frequency and the reload value of Timer 2 capture registers (RCAP2H, RCAP2L), as shown in the following equation before break MCU flash.
In the clock-out mode, Timer 2 rollovers will not generate an interrupt. This behavior is similar to when Timer 2 is used as a baud-rate generator. It is possible to use Timer 2 as a baud-rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously after break MCU flash.
Note, however, that the baud-rate and clock-out frequencies cannot be determined independently from one another since they both use RCAP2H and RCAP2L when break MCU flash.
The UART in the AT89S53 operates the same way as the UART in the ATMEGA861V. For fur- ther information, see the October 1995 MMCUrocontroller Data Book, page 2-49, section titled, “Serial Interface.” if break MCU flash
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the ATMEGA861V and peripheral devMCUes or between several ATMEGA861V devMCUes before break MCU flash.
The AT89S53 SPI features include the following:
Full-Duplex, 3-Wire Synchronous Data Transfer
Master or Slave Operation
1.5-MHz Bit Frequency (max.)
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
Four Programmable Bit Rates after break MCU flash
End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
Write Collision Flag Protection
Wakeup from Idle Mode (Slave Mode Only)

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATXMEGA64A1 Heximal

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The AVR architecture has two main memory spaces, the Program Memory and the Data Memory. In addition, the XMEGA A1 features an EEPROM Memory for non-volatile data storage. All three memory spaces are linear and require no paging. The available memory size configurations are shown in “Ordering Information” on page 2. In addition each device has a Flash memory signature row for calibration data, device identification, serial number etc. Non-volatile memory spaces can be locked for further write or read/write operations. This prevents unrestricted access to the application software.
When the device is powered on, the CPU starts to execute instructions from the lowest address in the Flash Program Memory ‘0’. The Program Counter (PC) addresses the next instruction to be fetched. After a reset, the PC is set to location ‘0’ from mcu program breaking.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, capable of addressing the whole address space directly. Most AVR instructions use a 16-bit word format, while a limited number uses a 32-bit format.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address PC is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. After reset the Stack Pointer (SP) points to the highest address in the internal SRAM. The SP is read/write accessible in the I/O memory space, enabling easy implementation of multiple stacks or stack areas. The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR CPU after the mcu program has been breaked.
• Flash Program Memory
– One linear address space
– In-System Programmable
– Self-Programming and Bootloader support
– Application Section for application code
– Application Table Section for application code or data storage
– Boot Section for application code or bootloader code
– Separate lock bits and protection for all sections
• Data Memory
– One linear address space
– Single cycle access from CPU
– SRAM
– EEPROM
Byte or page accessible
Optional memory mapping for direct load and store
– I/O Memory
Configuration and Status registers for all peripherals and modules
16-bit accessible General Purpose Register for global variables or flags
– External Memory support
– Bus arbitration
Safe and deterministic handling of CPU and DMA Controller priority
– Separate buses for SRAM, EEPROM, I/O Memory and External Memory access
Simultaneous bus access for CPU and DMA Controller
• Calibration Row Memory for factory programmed data
Oscillator calibration bytes
Serial number
Device ID for each device type
• User Signature Row
One flash page in size
Can be read and written from software
Data is kept after BREAK IC

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA168A Flash

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Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions. As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file. The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage.

These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3. The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls before Break MCU.

The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI if Break MCU.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present. This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the MCU. No internal clock division is used.

Figure 5-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit before Break IC.

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section ”Memory Programming” on page 285 for details.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATMEGA32A Software

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In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory. The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle. Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations before Break IC.

One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash Program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section. The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation. Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format when Break IC.

Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction. Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot program section and the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and break/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must reside in the Boot Program section. During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer SP is break/write accessible in the I/O space.

The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture. The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps. A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional global interrupt enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector in the interrupt vector table after Break IC.

The interrupts have priority in accordance with their interrupt vector position. The lower the interrupt vector address, the higher the priority. The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, $20 – $5F.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA16PA Flash

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First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices  when Break Mcu.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion.

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register(TCNTx) is 0x00 if Break Mcu.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register(TCCRx), asynchronous Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx) before Break Mcu.

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround after Break Mcu

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible. Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to break out the contents of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan chain if Break Mcu.

Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while breaking the Device ID Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain. If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega16 must be the fist device in the chain when Break Mcu.

Breaking EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request.

Breaking EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request.

Problem Fix / Workaround before Break Mcu

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR.

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion.

 

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register(TCNTx) is 0x00 after Break Mcu.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register(TCCRx), asynchronous Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx).

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround when Break Mcu

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible.

Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to break out the contents of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan chain. Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while breaking the Device ID

Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain. If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega16 must be the fist device in the chain if Break Mcu.

Breaking EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request.

Breaking EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC TS80C58X2 Code

We can Break IC TS80C58X2 Code, please view the IC TS80C58X2 features for your reference:

Software can take advantage of the additional data pointers to both increase speed and reduce code size, for example, block operations (copy, compare, search …) are well served by using one data pointer as a ’source’ pointer and the other one as a “destination” pointer when Break IC.

INC is a short (2 bytes) and fast (12 clocks) way to manipulate the DPS bit in the AUXR1 SFR. However, note that the INC instruction does not directly force the DPS bit to a particular state, but simply toggles it if Break IC.

In simple routines, such as the block move example, only the fact that DPS is toggled in the proper sequence matters, not its actual value. In other words, the block move routine works the same whether DPS is ‘0’ or ‘1’ on entry. Observe that without the last instruction (INC AUXR1), the routine will exit with DPS in the opposite state before Break IC.

The timer 2 in the TS80C54/58X2 is compatible with the timer 2 in the 80C52. It is a 16-bit timer/counter: the count is maintained by two eight-bit timer registers, TH2 and TL2, connected in cascade. It is controlled by T2CON register (See Table 6) and T2MOD register (See Table 7) after Break IC.

Timer 2 operation is similar to Timer 0 and Timer 1. C/T2 selects FOSC/12 (timer operation) or external pin T2 (counter operation) as the timer clock input. Setting TR2 allows TL2 to be incremented by the selected input before Break IC.

Timer 2 has 3 operating modes: capture, autoreload and Baud Rate Generator. These modes are selected by the combination of RCLK, TCLK and CP/RL2 (T2CON), as described in the Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers 8-bit Microcontroller Hardware description after Break IC.

Refer to the Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers 8-bit Microcontroller Hardware description for the description of Capture and Baud Rate Generator Modes. In TS80C54/58X2 Timer 2 includes the following enhancements:

Auto-reload mode with up or down counter

Programmable clock-output before Break IC

The auto-reload mode configures timer 2 as a 16-bit timer or event counter with automatic reload. If DCEN bit in T2MOD is cleared, timer 2 behaves as in 80C52 (refer to the Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers 8-bit Microcontroller Hardware description). If DCEN bit is set, timer 2 acts as an Up/down timer/counter as shown in Figure 4. In this mode the T2EX pin controls the direction of count when Break IC.

When T2EX is high, timer 2 counts up. Timer overflow occurs at FFFFh which sets the TF2 flag and generates an interrupt request. The overflow also causes the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers to be loaded into the timer registers TH2 and TL2.

When T2EX is low, timer 2 counts down. Timer underflow occurs when the count in the timer registers TH2 and TL2 equals the value stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L registers. The underflow sets TF2 flag and reloads FFFFh into the timer registers when Break IC.

 

The EXF2 bit toggles when timer 2 overflows or underflows according to the the direction of the count. EXF2 does not generate any interrupt. This bit can be used to provide 17-bit resolution.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC TS83C51U2 Heximal

Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary

 

We can Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary, please view the IC TS83C51U2 features for your reference:

In this document, UART_0 will make reference to the first UART (present in all Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers C51 derivatives) and UART_1 will make reference to the second UART, only present in the TS80C51U2 part when Break IC.

The second UART (UART_1) can be seen as an alternate function of Port 1 (P1.2 or P1.6 for RXD1 and P1.3 or P1.7 for TXD1) or can be connected to (pin6 or pin12) and (pin28 or pin34) of 44-pin package (see Pin configuration). UART_1 is fully compliant with the first one allowing an internal baud rate generator to be the clock source if Break IC.

This common internal baud rate generator can be used independently by each UART or both as clock source allowing to program various speeds before Break IC.

The TS80C51U2 provides 7 sources of interrupt with four priority levels. UART_1 has a lower priority than Timer

The Serial Ports are full duplex meaning they can transmit and receive simultaneously. They are also receive buffered, meaning they can start reception of a second byte before a previously received byte has been break from the receive register before Break IC.

The Serial Port receive and transmit registers of UART_1 are both accessed at Special Function Register SBUF_1. Writing to SBUF_1 loads the transmit register and breaking SBUF_1 accesses a physical separate receive register after Break IC.

The UART_1 port control and status is the Special Function Register SCON_1. This register contains not only the mode selection bit but also the 9th bit for transmit and receive (TB8_1 and RB8_1) and the serial port interrupt bits (TI_1 and RI_1). The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when multiprocessor communication is enabled. Implemented in hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the Serial Port to examine address of each incoming frame and provides filtering capability before Break IC.

The UART_1 also comes with Frame error detection, similar to the UART_0. The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the TS80C51U2 fall into the following categories:

C51 core registers: ACC, B, DPH, DPL, PSW, SP, AUXR1

I/O port registers: P0, P1, P2, P3 after Break IC

Timer registers: T2CON, T2MOD, TCON, TH0, TH1, TH2, TMOD, TL0, TL1, TL2, RCAP2L, RCAP2H

Serial I/O port registers for UART_0: SADDR_0, SADEN_0, SBUF_0, SCON_0

Serial I/O port registers for UART_1: SADDR_1, SADEN_1, SBUF_1, SCON_1

Baud Rate Generator registers: BRL, BDRCON, BDRCON_1 when Break IC

Power and clock control registers: PCON

HDW Watchdog Timer Reset: WDTRST, WDTPRG

Interrupt system registers: IE, IP, IPH

Others: AUXR, CKCONIn comparison to the original 80C52, the TS80C51U2 implements some new features, which are:

The X2 option when Break IC.

The second full duplex enhanced UART.

The Baud Rate generator.

The Dual Data Pointer.

The Watchdog.

The 4 level interrupt priority system.

The power-off flag.

The ONCE mode.

The ALE disabling.

Some enhanced features are also located in the UARTs and the timer 2 after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary

We can Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary, please view the IC TS83C51U2 features for your reference:

In this document, UART_0 will make reference to the first UART (present in all Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers C51 derivatives) and UART_1 will make reference to the second UART, only present in the TS80C51U2 part. The second UART (UART_1) can be seen as an alternate function of Port 1 (P1.2 or P1.6 for RXD1 and P1.3 or P1.7 for TXD1) or can be connected to (pin6 or pin12) and (pin28 or pin34) of 44-pin package (see Pin configuration). UART_1 is fully compliant with the first one allowing an internal baud rate generator to be the clock source if Break IC.

This common internal baud rate generator can be used independently by each UART or both as clock source allowing to program various speeds.The TS80C51U2 provides 7 sources of interrupt with four priority levels. UART_1 has a lower priority than Timer, The Serial Ports are full duplex meaning they can transmit and receive simultaneously. They are also receive buffered, meaning they can start reception of a second byte before a previously received byte has been break from the receive register.

The Serial Port receive and transmit registers of UART_1 are both accessed at Special Function Register SBUF_1. Writing to SBUF_1 loads the transmit register and breaking SBUF_1 accesses a physical separate receive register. The UART_1 port control and status is the Special Function Register SCON_1. This register contains not only the mode selection bit but also the 9th bit for transmit and receive (TB8_1 and RB8_1) and the serial port interrupt bits (TI_1 and RI_1). The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when multiprocessor communication is enabled. Implemented in hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the Serial Port to examine address of each incoming frame and provides filtering capability before Break IC.

The UART_1 also comes with Frame error detection, similar to the UART_0. The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the TS80C51U2 fall into the following categories:

C51 core registers: ACC, B, DPH, DPL, PSW, SP, AUXR1

I/O port registers: P0, P1, P2, P3 after Break IC

Timer registers: T2CON, T2MOD, TCON, TH0, TH1, TH2, TMOD, TL0, TL1, TL2, RCAP2L, RCAP2H

Serial I/O port registers for UART_0: SADDR_0, SADEN_0, SBUF_0, SCON_0

Serial I/O port registers for UART_1: SADDR_1, SADEN_1, SBUF_1, SCON_1

Baud Rate Generator registers: BRL, BDRCON, BDRCON_1

Power and clock control registers: PCON

HDW Watchdog Timer Reset: WDTRST, WDTPRG

Interrupt system registers: IE, IP, IPH

Others: AUXR, CKCONIn comparison to the original 80C52, the TS80C51U2 implements some new features, which are:

The X2 option

The second full duplex enhanced UART.

The Baud Rate generator.

The Dual Data Pointer.

The Watchdog.

The 4 level interrupt priority system.

The power-off flag.

The ONCE mode.

The ALE disabling.

Some enhanced features are also located in the UARTs and the timer 2.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU PIC12CE674 Software

Break MCU PIC12CE674 Software

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The high performance of the PIC12C67X family can be attributed to a number of architectural features commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To begin with, the PIC12C67X uses a Harvard architecture, in which program and data are accessed from separate memories using separate buses when Break MCU.

This improves bandwidth over traditional von Neumann architecture in which program and data are fetched from the same memory using the same bus. Separating program and data buses also allow instructions to be sized differently than the 8-bit wide data word. Instruction opcodes are 14-bits wide making it possible to have all single word instructions if Break MCU.

A 14-bit wide program memory access bus fetches a 14-bit instruction in a single instruction cycle. A two-stage pipeline overlaps fetch and execution of instructions (Example 3-1). Consequently, all instructions (35) execute in a single cycle (400 ns @ 10 MHz) except for program branches before Break MCU.

The table below lists program memory (EPROM), data memory (RAM), and non-volatile memory (EEPROM) for each PIC12C67X device. The PIC12C67X can directly or indirectly address its register files or data memory. All special function registers, including the program counter, are mapped in the data memory after Break MCU.

The PIC12C67X has an orthogonal (symmetrical) instruction set that makes it possible to carry out any operation on any register using any addressing mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of ‘special optimal situations’ make programming with the PIC12C67X simple yet efficient when Break MCU.

In addition, the learning curve is reduced significantly. PIC12C67X devices contain an 8-bit ALU and working register. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit. It performs arithmetic and Boolean functions between the data in the working register and any register file if Break MCU.

The ALU is 8-bits wide and capable of addition, subtraction, shift and logical operations. Unless otherwise mentioned, arithmetic operations are two’s complement in nature. In two-operand instructions, typically one operand is the working register (W register) when Break MCU.

The other operand is a file register or an immediate constant. In single operand instructions, the operand is either the W register or a file register. The W register is an 8-bit working register used for ALU operations. It is not an addressable register before Break MCU.

Depending on the instruction executed, the ALU may affect the values of the Carry (C), Digit Carry (DC), and Zero (Z) bits in the STATUS register. The C and DC bits operate as a borrow bit and a digit borrow out bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF instructions for examples after Break MCU.