Archive for September, 2017

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller ATMEGA644PA Firmware

We can reverse engineering microcontroller ATMEGA644PA firmware, please view the microcontroller ATMEGA644PA features for your reference:
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to “External Interrupts” on page 75 for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs until the wake-up becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after having been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the same CKSEL Fuses that define the Reset Time-out period, as described in “Clock Sources” on page 40. When the SM2..0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-save mode before reverse engineering microcontroller ATMEGA644PA firmware.
This mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception: If Timer/Counter2 is enabled, it will keep running during sleep. The device can wake up from either Timer Overflow or Output Compare event from Timer/Counter2 if the corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in TIMSK2, and the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set.
If Timer/Counter2 is not running, Power-down mode is recommended instead of Power-save mode. The Timer/Counter2 can be clocked both synchronously and asynchronously in Power-save mode. If the Timer/Counter2 is not using the asynchronous clock, the Timer/Counter Oscillator is stopped during sleep when REVERSE ENGINEERING MICROCONTROLLER.
If the Timer/Counter2 is not using the synchronous clock, the clock source is stopped during sleep. Note that even if the synchronous clock is running in Power-save, this clock is only available for the Timer/Counter2. When the SM2..0 bits are 110 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-down with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. From Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles before reverse engineering microcontroller ATMEGA644PA firmware.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATMEGA162A Heximal

We can recover MCU ATMEGA162A Heximal, please view the MCU ATMEGA162A features for your reference:
When the SM2..0 bits are 111 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Extended Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-save mode with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running.
From Extended Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles. The Power Reduction Register, PRR, provides a method to stop the clock to individual peripherals to reduce power consumption. The current state of the peripheral is frozen and the I/O registers can not be read or written if recover MCU heximal.
Resources used by the peripheral when stopping the clock will remain occupied, hence the peripheral should in most cases be disabled before stopping the clock. Waking up a module, which is done by clearing the bit in PRR, puts the module in the same state as before shutdown.
Module shutdown can be used in Idle mode and Active mode to significantly reduce the overall power consumption. See “Supply Current of IO modules” on page 381 for examples. In all other sleep modes, the clock is already stopped.
Bit 7 – PRTWI: Power Reduction TWI
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the TWI by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the TWI again, the TWI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation when recover MCU heximal.
Bit 6 – PRTIM2: Power Reduction Timer/Counter2
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter2 module in synchronous mode (AS2 is 0). When the Timer/Counter2 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
Bit 5 – PRTIM0: Power Reduction Timer/Counter0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the Timer/Counter0 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown before RECOVER MCU.
Bit 4 – Res: Reserved bit
This bit is reserved bit and will always read as zero.
Bit 3 – PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
Bit 2 – PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Serial Peripheral Interface by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation after recover MCU heximal.
Bit 1 – PRUSART0: Power Reduction USART0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART0 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USART0 again, the USART0 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation when recover MCU heximal.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATXMEGA64A1 Heximal

We can Break MCU ATXMEGA64A1 Heximal, please view the MCU ATXMEGA64A1 features for your reference:
The AVR architecture has two main memory spaces, the Program Memory and the Data Memory. In addition, the XMEGA A1 features an EEPROM Memory for non-volatile data storage. All three memory spaces are linear and require no paging. The available memory size configurations are shown in “Ordering Information” on page 2. In addition each device has a Flash memory signature row for calibration data, device identification, serial number etc. Non-volatile memory spaces can be locked for further write or read/write operations. This prevents unrestricted access to the application software.
When the device is powered on, the CPU starts to execute instructions from the lowest address in the Flash Program Memory ‘0’. The Program Counter (PC) addresses the next instruction to be fetched. After a reset, the PC is set to location ‘0’ from mcu program breaking.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, capable of addressing the whole address space directly. Most AVR instructions use a 16-bit word format, while a limited number uses a 32-bit format.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address PC is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. After reset the Stack Pointer (SP) points to the highest address in the internal SRAM. The SP is read/write accessible in the I/O memory space, enabling easy implementation of multiple stacks or stack areas. The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR CPU after the mcu program has been breaked.
• Flash Program Memory
– One linear address space
– In-System Programmable
– Self-Programming and Bootloader support
– Application Section for application code
– Application Table Section for application code or data storage
– Boot Section for application code or bootloader code
– Separate lock bits and protection for all sections
• Data Memory
– One linear address space
– Single cycle access from CPU
– SRAM
– EEPROM
Byte or page accessible
Optional memory mapping for direct load and store
– I/O Memory
Configuration and Status registers for all peripherals and modules
16-bit accessible General Purpose Register for global variables or flags
– External Memory support
– Bus arbitration
Safe and deterministic handling of CPU and DMA Controller priority
– Separate buses for SRAM, EEPROM, I/O Memory and External Memory access
Simultaneous bus access for CPU and DMA Controller
• Calibration Row Memory for factory programmed data
Oscillator calibration bytes
Serial number
Device ID for each device type
• User Signature Row
One flash page in size
Can be read and written from software
Data is kept after BREAK IC