Archive for July, 2015

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATTINY25 Flash

We can Recover Mcu ATTINY25 Flash, please view the Mcu ATTINY25 features for your reference:

The ATtiny25/45/85 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit mcu based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny25/45/85 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed when Recover MCU ATTINY25 Flash.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle if Recover MCU ATTINY25 Flash.

The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC mcus.

The ATtiny25/45/85 provides the following features: 2/4/8K byte of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256/512 bytes EEPROM, 128/256/256 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one 8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, one 8-bit high speed Timer/Counter, Universal Serial Interface, Internal and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes when Recover Mcu.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter, ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset before Recover Mcu.

The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core before Recover Mcu.

The ATtiny25/45/85 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits after RECOVER MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller Attiny44 Code

We can Recover MCU ATTINY44 Code, please view the MICROCONTROLLER ATTINY44 features for your reference:

EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work, EEPROM read from application code does not work in Lock Bit Mode 3 When the Memory Lock Bits LB2 and LB1 are programmed to mode 3, EEPROM read does not work from the application code. Problem Fix/Work around Do not set Lock Bit Protection Mode 3 when the application code needs to read from EEPROM if Recover Microcontroller Attiny44 Code.

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work Reading data from the EEPROM at system clock frequency below 900 kHz may result in wrong data read. Problem Fix/Work around Avoid using the EEPROM at clock frequency below 900 kHz before Recover Microcontroller Attiny44 Code. Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work

Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900 kHz may not work Reading data from the EEPROM at system clock frequency below 900 kHz may result in wrong data read.

Problem Fix/Work around Avoid using the EEPROM at clock frequency below 900 kHz.

Port A is a 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability before Recover MICROCONTROLLER. As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running when Recover Microcontroller Attiny44 Code.

Port A has an alternate functions as analog inputs for the ADC, analog comparator, timer/counter, SPI and pin change interrupt as described in ”Alternate Port Functions”. Port B is a 4-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability except PB3 which has the RESET capability.

To use pin PB3 as an I/O pin, instead of RESET pin, program (‘0’) RSTDISBL fuse before Recover MCU. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATtiny24/44/84 as listed on Section 12.3 ”Alternate Port Functions” on page 61.

PostHeaderIcon Recover IC ATMEGA168PA Program

We can Recover IC ATMEGA168PA Program, please view the IC ATMEGA168PA features for your reference:

The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in ”Interrupts” on page 56. The list also determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request; The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR). Refer to ”Interrupts” on page 56 for more information. The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the BOOTRST Fuse, see ”Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming, ATmega88 and ATmega168” on page 269 if Recover IC.

When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed. There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the Interrupt Flag. For these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vector in order to execute the interrupt handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding Interrupt Flag after Recover IC.

Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s) to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding interrupt enable bit is cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt Enable bit is cleared, the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the Global Interrupt Enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority if Recover IC.

The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered. When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one more instruction before any pending interrupt is served. Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor restored when returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software. When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled after Recover MCU. No interrupt will be executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the timed EEPROM write sequence.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA168A Flash

We can Break MCU ATMEGA168A Flash, please view the MCU ATMEGA168A features for your reference:

Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions. As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file. The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage.

These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3. The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls before Break MCU.

The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI if Break MCU.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present. This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the MCU. No internal clock division is used.

Figure 5-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit before Break IC.

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section ”Memory Programming” on page 285 for details.

PostHeaderIcon Recovery Microcontroller ATmega48A Program

We can Recovery MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA48A Program, please view the MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA48A features for your reference:

The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag

The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V

The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag

The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag

The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information before Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag

The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.

Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag

The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information after Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the Register File:

One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input

One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input

Figure 5-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.

Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions.

As shown in Figure 5-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file before Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.

The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5-3.

The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer when Recover MCU.

The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0100, preferably RAMEND. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI. The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present when Recovery MICROCONTROLLER.