Archive for May, 2015

PostHeaderIcon Recover Mcu TS80C54X2 Flash

We can Recover Mcu TS80C54X2 Flash, please view the Mcu TS80C54X2 features for your reference:

TS80C54/58X2 is high performance CMOS ROM, OTP and EPROM versions of the 80C51 CMOS single chip 8-bit mcu. The TS80C54/58X2 retains all features of the Atmel Wireless & Mcus 80C51 with extended ROM/EPROM capacity (16/32 Kbytes), 256 bytes of internal RAM, a 6-source , 4-level interrupt system, an on-chip oscilator and three timer/counters when Recover Mcu.

In addition, the TS80C54/58X2 has a Hardware Watchdog Timer, a more versatile serial channel that facilitates multiprocessor communication (EUART) and a X2 speed improvement mechanism if Recover Mcu.

The fully static design of the TS80C54/58X2 allows to reduce system power consumption by bringing the clock frequency down to any value, even DC, without loss of data before Recover Mcu.

The TS80C54/58X2 has 2 software-selectable modes of reduced activity for further reduction in power consumption. In the idle mode the CPU is frozen while the timers, the serial port and the interrupt system are still operating. In the power-down mode the RAM is saved and all other functions are inoperative after Recover Mcu.

80C52 Compatible

8051 pin and instruction compatible when Recover Mcu

Four 8-bit I/O ports

Three 16-bit timer/counters

256 bytes scratchpad RAM

High-Speed Architecture

40 MHz @ 5V, 30MHz @ 3V

X2 Speed Improvement capability (6 clocks/machine cycle)

30 MHz @ 5V, 20 MHz @ 3V (Equivalent to 60 MHz @ 5V, 40 MHz @ 3V)

Dual Data Pointer if Recover Mcu

On-chip ROM/EPROM (16K-bytes, 32K-bytes)

Programmable Clock Out and Up/Down Timer/

Counter 2

Hardware Watchdog Timer (One-time enabled with Reset-Out)

Asynchronous port reset

Interrupt Structure with

6 Interrupt sources

4 level priority interrupt system

Full duplex Enhanced UART before Recover Mcu

Framing error detection

Automatic address recognition

Low EMI (inhibit ALE)

Power Control modes

Idle mode

Power-down mode

Power-off Flag

Once mode (On-chip Emulation)

Power supply: 4.5-5.5V, 2.7-5.5V

Temperature ranges: Commercial (0 to 70oC) and Industrial (-40 to 85oC)

Packages: PDIL40, PLCC44, VQFP44 1.4, PQFP44 after Recover Mcu

F1, CQPJ44 (window), CDIL40 (window)

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU TS87C51U2 Heximal

Recover MCU TS87C51U2 Heximal

 

We can Recover MCU TS87C51U2 Heximal, please view the MCU TS87C51U2 features for your reference:

In comparison to the original 80C52, the TS80C51U2 implements some new features, which are:

 

The X2 option.

The second full duplex enhanced UART when Recover MCU.

The Baud Rate generator.

The Dual Data Pointer.

The Watchdog.

The 4 level interrupt priority system if Recover MCU.

The power-off flag.

The ONCE mode.

The ALE disabling.

Some enhanced features are also located in the UARTs and the timer 2.

The TS80C51U2 core needs only 6 clock periods per machine cycle. This feature called ”X2” provides the following advantages before Recover MCU:

Divide frequency crystals by 2 (cheaper crystals) while keeping same CPU power. Save power consumption while keeping same CPU power (oscillator power saving). Save power consumption by dividing dynamically operating frequency by 2 in operating and idle modes after Recover MCU.

Increase CPU power by 2 while keeping same crystal frequency. In order to keep the original C51 compatibility, a divider by 2 is inserted between the XTAL1 signal and the main clock input of the core (phase generator). This divider may be disabled by software if Recover MCU.

The clock for the whole circuit and peripheral is first divided by two before being used by the CPU core and peripherals. This allows any cyclic ratio to be accepted on XTAL1 input. In X2 mode, as this divider is bypassed, the signals on XTAL1 must have a cyclic ratio between 40 to 60%. Figure 1 before Recover MCU.

shows the clock generation block diagram. X2 bit is validated on XTAL1÷2 rising edge to avoid glitches when switching from X2 to STD mode. Figure 2. shows the mode switching waveforms after Recover MCU.

The X2 bit in the CKCON register (See Table 4.) allows to switch from 12 clock cycles per instruction to 6 clock cycles and vice versa. At reset, the standard speed is activated (STD mode). Setting this bit activates the X2 feature (X2 mode).

CAUTION

In order to prevent any incorrect operation while operating in X2 mode, user must be aware that all peripherals using clock frequency as time reference (UARTs, timers) will have their time reference divided by two. For example a free running timer generating an interrupt every 20 ms will then generate an interrupt every 10 ms. UART with 4800 baud rate will have 9600 baud rate if Recover MCU.

The additional data pointer can be used to speed up code execution and reduce code size in a number of ways. The dual DPTR structure is a way by which the chip will specify the address of an external data memory location. There are two 16-bit DPTR registers that address the external memory, and a single bit called DPS = AUXR1/bit0 (See Table 5.) that allows the program code to switch between them if Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC TS83C51U2 Heximal

Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary

 

We can Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary, please view the IC TS83C51U2 features for your reference:

In this document, UART_0 will make reference to the first UART (present in all Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers C51 derivatives) and UART_1 will make reference to the second UART, only present in the TS80C51U2 part when Break IC.

The second UART (UART_1) can be seen as an alternate function of Port 1 (P1.2 or P1.6 for RXD1 and P1.3 or P1.7 for TXD1) or can be connected to (pin6 or pin12) and (pin28 or pin34) of 44-pin package (see Pin configuration). UART_1 is fully compliant with the first one allowing an internal baud rate generator to be the clock source if Break IC.

This common internal baud rate generator can be used independently by each UART or both as clock source allowing to program various speeds before Break IC.

The TS80C51U2 provides 7 sources of interrupt with four priority levels. UART_1 has a lower priority than Timer

The Serial Ports are full duplex meaning they can transmit and receive simultaneously. They are also receive buffered, meaning they can start reception of a second byte before a previously received byte has been break from the receive register before Break IC.

The Serial Port receive and transmit registers of UART_1 are both accessed at Special Function Register SBUF_1. Writing to SBUF_1 loads the transmit register and breaking SBUF_1 accesses a physical separate receive register after Break IC.

The UART_1 port control and status is the Special Function Register SCON_1. This register contains not only the mode selection bit but also the 9th bit for transmit and receive (TB8_1 and RB8_1) and the serial port interrupt bits (TI_1 and RI_1). The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when multiprocessor communication is enabled. Implemented in hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the Serial Port to examine address of each incoming frame and provides filtering capability before Break IC.

The UART_1 also comes with Frame error detection, similar to the UART_0. The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the TS80C51U2 fall into the following categories:

C51 core registers: ACC, B, DPH, DPL, PSW, SP, AUXR1

I/O port registers: P0, P1, P2, P3 after Break IC

Timer registers: T2CON, T2MOD, TCON, TH0, TH1, TH2, TMOD, TL0, TL1, TL2, RCAP2L, RCAP2H

Serial I/O port registers for UART_0: SADDR_0, SADEN_0, SBUF_0, SCON_0

Serial I/O port registers for UART_1: SADDR_1, SADEN_1, SBUF_1, SCON_1

Baud Rate Generator registers: BRL, BDRCON, BDRCON_1 when Break IC

Power and clock control registers: PCON

HDW Watchdog Timer Reset: WDTRST, WDTPRG

Interrupt system registers: IE, IP, IPH

Others: AUXR, CKCONIn comparison to the original 80C52, the TS80C51U2 implements some new features, which are:

The X2 option when Break IC.

The second full duplex enhanced UART.

The Baud Rate generator.

The Dual Data Pointer.

The Watchdog.

The 4 level interrupt priority system.

The power-off flag.

The ONCE mode.

The ALE disabling.

Some enhanced features are also located in the UARTs and the timer 2 after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary

We can Break IC TS83C51U2 Binary, please view the IC TS83C51U2 features for your reference:

In this document, UART_0 will make reference to the first UART (present in all Atmel Wireless & Microcontrollers C51 derivatives) and UART_1 will make reference to the second UART, only present in the TS80C51U2 part. The second UART (UART_1) can be seen as an alternate function of Port 1 (P1.2 or P1.6 for RXD1 and P1.3 or P1.7 for TXD1) or can be connected to (pin6 or pin12) and (pin28 or pin34) of 44-pin package (see Pin configuration). UART_1 is fully compliant with the first one allowing an internal baud rate generator to be the clock source if Break IC.

This common internal baud rate generator can be used independently by each UART or both as clock source allowing to program various speeds.The TS80C51U2 provides 7 sources of interrupt with four priority levels. UART_1 has a lower priority than Timer, The Serial Ports are full duplex meaning they can transmit and receive simultaneously. They are also receive buffered, meaning they can start reception of a second byte before a previously received byte has been break from the receive register.

The Serial Port receive and transmit registers of UART_1 are both accessed at Special Function Register SBUF_1. Writing to SBUF_1 loads the transmit register and breaking SBUF_1 accesses a physical separate receive register. The UART_1 port control and status is the Special Function Register SCON_1. This register contains not only the mode selection bit but also the 9th bit for transmit and receive (TB8_1 and RB8_1) and the serial port interrupt bits (TI_1 and RI_1). The automatic address recognition feature is enabled when multiprocessor communication is enabled. Implemented in hardware, automatic address recognition enhances the multiprocessor communication feature by allowing the Serial Port to examine address of each incoming frame and provides filtering capability before Break IC.

The UART_1 also comes with Frame error detection, similar to the UART_0. The Special Function Registers (SFRs) of the TS80C51U2 fall into the following categories:

C51 core registers: ACC, B, DPH, DPL, PSW, SP, AUXR1

I/O port registers: P0, P1, P2, P3 after Break IC

Timer registers: T2CON, T2MOD, TCON, TH0, TH1, TH2, TMOD, TL0, TL1, TL2, RCAP2L, RCAP2H

Serial I/O port registers for UART_0: SADDR_0, SADEN_0, SBUF_0, SCON_0

Serial I/O port registers for UART_1: SADDR_1, SADEN_1, SBUF_1, SCON_1

Baud Rate Generator registers: BRL, BDRCON, BDRCON_1

Power and clock control registers: PCON

HDW Watchdog Timer Reset: WDTRST, WDTPRG

Interrupt system registers: IE, IP, IPH

Others: AUXR, CKCONIn comparison to the original 80C52, the TS80C51U2 implements some new features, which are:

The X2 option

The second full duplex enhanced UART.

The Baud Rate generator.

The Dual Data Pointer.

The Watchdog.

The 4 level interrupt priority system.

The power-off flag.

The ONCE mode.

The ALE disabling.

Some enhanced features are also located in the UARTs and the timer 2.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Mcu TS80C51U2 Flash

Recover Mcu TS80C51U2 Flash

We can Recover Mcu TS80C51U2 Flash, please view the Mcu TS80C51U2 features for your reference:

TS80C51U2 is high performance CMOS ROM, OTP and EPROM versions of the 80C51 CMOS single mcu 8-bit microcontroller. The TS80C51U2 retains all features of the 80C51 with extended ROM/EPROM capacity (16 Kbytes), 256 bytes of internal RAM, a 7-source , 4-level interrupt system, an on-mcu oscilator and three timer/counters. In addition, the TS80C51U2 has a second UART, enhanced functions on both UART, enhanced timer 2, a hardware watchdog timer, a dual data pointer, a baud rate generator and a X2 speed improvement mechanism. The fully static design of the TS80C51U2 allows to reduce system power consumption by bringing the clock frequency down to any value, even DC, without loss of data if Recover Mcu.

The TS80C51U2 has 2 software-selectable modes of reduced activity for further reduction in power consumption. In the idle mode the CPU is frozen while the timers, the serial port and the interrupt system are still operating. In the power-down mode the RAM is saved and all other functions are inoperative.

80C52 Compatible

8051 pin and instruction compatible

Four 8-bit I/O ports

Three 16-bit timer/counters

256 bytes scratchpad RAM

High-Speed Architecture

40 MHz @ 5V, 30MHz @ 3V

X2 Speed Improvement capability (6 clocks/machine cycle)

30 MHz @ 5V, 20 MHz @ 3V (Equivalent to 60 MHz @ 5V, 40 MHz @ 3V) before Recover Mcu

Second UART

Baud Rate Generator

Dual Data Pointer

On-mcu ROM/EPROM (16K-bytes)

Programmable Clock Out and Up/Down Timer/ Counter 2

Hardware Watchdog Timer (One-time enabled with Reset-Out)

Asynchronous port reset

Interrupt Structure with

7 Interrupt sources

4 level priority interrupt system

Full duplex Enhanced UARTs

Framing error detection

Automatic address recognition

Low EMI (inhibit ALE)

Power Control modes after Recover Mcu

Idle mode

Power-down mode

Power-off Flag

Once mode (On-mcu Emulation)

Power supply: 4.5-5.5V, 2.7-5.5V

Temperature ranges: Commercial (0 to 70oC) and

Industrial (-40 to 85oC)

Packages: PDIL40, PLCC44, VQFP44 1.4, CQPJ44 (window), CDIL40 (window)

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU AT87LV51 Software

We can Break Mcu AT87LV51 Software, please view the Mcu AT87LV51 features for your reference:

The AT87LV51 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit mcu with 4K bytes of QuickFlash One-Time Programmable (OTP) Break Only memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout.

The on-chip QuickFlash allows the program memory to be user programmed by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with QuickFlash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT87LV51 is a powerful mcu that provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

The AT87LV51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of QuickFlash OTP program memory, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five-vector, 2-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT87LV51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software-selectable power-saving modes.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier, which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator.

Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

In Idle Mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the Special Function registers remains unchanged during this mode. The Idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset when Break IC.

It should be noted that when Idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited.

To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller ATTINY13A Heximal

We can Recover MCU ATTINY13A Heximal, please view the MICROCONTROLLER ATTINY13A flash  features for your reference:

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.

The ATtiny13A provides the following features: 1K byte of In-System Programmable Flash, 64 bytes EEPROM, 64 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one 8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, Internal and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes if Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter, ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core.

The ATtiny13A AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, and Evaluation kits if Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written when Recover MICROCONTROLLER.

I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 – 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.ome of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operation the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F.

This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller AT80F51 Eeprom

Recover Microcontroller AT80F51 Eeprom

We can Recover Microcontroller AT80F51 Eeprom, please view the Microcontroller AT80F51 features for your reference:

The AT80F51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of QuickFlash Memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS- 51™ instruction set and pinout when Recover Microcontroller.

The on-microcontroller QuickFlash allows custom codes to be quickly programmed in the factory. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Quick-Flash on a monolithic microcontroller, the Atmel AT80F51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications if Recover Microcontroller.

The AT80F51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of QuickFlash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-microcontroller oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT80F51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes before Recover Microcontroller.

The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other microcontroller functions until the next hardware reset after Recover Microcontroller.

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-microcontroller oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on- microcontroller peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software when Recover Microcontroller.

The content of the on-microcontroller RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control if Recover Microcontroller.

On-microcontroller hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of nated. The only exit from power down is a hardware reset after Recover Microcontroller. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-microcontroller RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize before Recover Microcontroller.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU PIC16HV540 Binary

Recover MCU PIC16HV540 Binary

We can Recover MCU PIC16HV540 Binary, please view the MCU PIC16HV540 features for your reference:

High-Performance RISC CPU:

· Only 33 single word instructions to learn

· All instructions are single cycle (200 ns) except for program branches which are two-cycle

· Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input DC – 200 ns instruction cycle

· 12-bit wide instructions

· 8-bit wide data path

· Seven special function hardware registers

· Four-level deep hardware stack

· Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes for data and instructions

Peripheral Features:

· 8-bit real time clock/counter (TMR0) with 8-bit programmable prescaler if Recover MCU

· Power-On Reset (POR)

· Brown-Out Protection

· Device Reset Timer (DRT) with short RC oscillator start-up time

· Programmable Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation

· Sleep Timer

· 8 High Voltage I/O

· 4 Regulated I/O

· Wake up from SLEEP on-pin change

· Programmable code protection

· Power saving SLEEP mode

· Selectable oscillator options:

– RC:   Low-cost RC oscillator

– XT:   Standard crystal/resonator

– HS:   High speed crystal/resonator

– LP:   Power saving, low frequency crystal

· Glitch filtering on MCLR and pin change inputs

CMOS Technology:

· Selectable on-chip 3V/5V Regulator

· Low-power, high-speed CMOS EPROM technology

· Fully static design

· Wide-operating voltage range:

– 3.5V to 15V

· Temperature range:

– Commercial: 0°C to 70°C

– Industrial: -40°C to 85°C

· Low-power consumption

– < 2 mA typical @ 5V, 4 MHz

– 15 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz

– < 4.5 µA typical standby current @ 15V (with WDT disabled), 0°C to 70°C

The PIC16HV540 from Microchip Technology is a low- cost, high-performance, 8-bit, fully-static, EPROM- based CMOS microcontroller. It is pin and software compatible with the PIC16C5X family of devices. It employs a RISC architecture with only 33 single word single cycle instructions. All instructions are single cycle except for program branches, which take two cycles. The PIC16HV540 delivers performance an order of magnitude higher than its competitors in the same price category after Recover MCU.

The 12-bit wide instructions are highly orthogonal resulting in 2:1 code compression over other 8-bit microcontrollers in its class. The easy-to-use and easy-to-remember instruction set reduces development time significantly if Recover MCU.

The PIC16HV540 is the first One-Time-Programmable (OTP) microcontroller with an on-chip 3 volt and 5 volt regulator. This eliminates the need for an external regulator in many applications powered from 9 Volt or 12 Volt batteries or unregulated 6 volt, 9 volt or 12 volt mains adapters.

The PIC16HV540 is ideally suited for applications that require very low standby current at high voltages. These typically require expensive low current regulators.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU PIC12CE674 Software

Break MCU PIC12CE674 Software

We can Break MCU PIC12CE674 Software, please view the MCU PIC12CE674 features for your reference:

The high performance of the PIC12C67X family can be attributed to a number of architectural features commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To begin with, the PIC12C67X uses a Harvard architecture, in which program and data are accessed from separate memories using separate buses when Break MCU.

This improves bandwidth over traditional von Neumann architecture in which program and data are fetched from the same memory using the same bus. Separating program and data buses also allow instructions to be sized differently than the 8-bit wide data word. Instruction opcodes are 14-bits wide making it possible to have all single word instructions if Break MCU.

A 14-bit wide program memory access bus fetches a 14-bit instruction in a single instruction cycle. A two-stage pipeline overlaps fetch and execution of instructions (Example 3-1). Consequently, all instructions (35) execute in a single cycle (400 ns @ 10 MHz) except for program branches before Break MCU.

The table below lists program memory (EPROM), data memory (RAM), and non-volatile memory (EEPROM) for each PIC12C67X device. The PIC12C67X can directly or indirectly address its register files or data memory. All special function registers, including the program counter, are mapped in the data memory after Break MCU.

The PIC12C67X has an orthogonal (symmetrical) instruction set that makes it possible to carry out any operation on any register using any addressing mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of ‘special optimal situations’ make programming with the PIC12C67X simple yet efficient when Break MCU.

In addition, the learning curve is reduced significantly. PIC12C67X devices contain an 8-bit ALU and working register. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit. It performs arithmetic and Boolean functions between the data in the working register and any register file if Break MCU.

The ALU is 8-bits wide and capable of addition, subtraction, shift and logical operations. Unless otherwise mentioned, arithmetic operations are two’s complement in nature. In two-operand instructions, typically one operand is the working register (W register) when Break MCU.

The other operand is a file register or an immediate constant. In single operand instructions, the operand is either the W register or a file register. The W register is an 8-bit working register used for ALU operations. It is not an addressable register before Break MCU.

Depending on the instruction executed, the ALU may affect the values of the Carry (C), Digit Carry (DC), and Zero (Z) bits in the STATUS register. The C and DC bits operate as a borrow bit and a digit borrow out bit, respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF instructions for examples after Break MCU.