Archive for December, 2010

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering IC ATMEGA1284PV Firmware

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Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module, with two independent Output Compare Units, and with PWM support. It allows accurate program execution timing (event management) and wave generation. The main features are:

Two Independent Output Compare Units

Double Buffered Output Compare Registers when Reverse Engineering IC firmware

Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)

Glitch Free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)

Variable PWM Period

Frequency Generator

Three Independent Interrupt Sources (TOV0, OCF0A, and OCF0B) if Reverse Engineering IC firmware

A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 38. For the actual placement of I/O pins, refer to “Pinout ATmega640/1280/2560” on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins before Reverse Engineering IC firmware, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” on page 128.

The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are 8-bit registers. Interrupt request (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR0) after Reverse Engineering IC firmware. All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not shown in the figure.

The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on the T0 pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value when Reverse Engineering IC firmware.

The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).

The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are compared with the Timer/Counter value at all times if Reverse Engineering IC firmware. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pins (OC0A and OC0B). See “Output Compare Unit” on page 119. for details.

The Compare Match event will also set the Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request before Reverse Engineering IC firmware.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA128APA Heximal

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OC1A/PCINT5, Bit 5

OC1A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB5 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB5 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function before Break MCU heximal.

PCINT5, Pin Change Interrupt source 5: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.

 

OC2A/PCINT4, Bit 4

OC2A, Output Compare Match output: The PB4 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter2 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB4 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC2A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function when Break MCU heximal.

PCINT4, Pin Change Interrupt source 4: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.

 

MISO/PCINT3 – Port B, Bit 3

MISO: Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a master, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB3. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB3. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB3 bit if Break MCU heximal.

PCINT3, Pin Change Interrupt source 3: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source when Break MCU heximal.

 

MOSI/PCINT2 – Port B, Bit 2

MOSI: SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB2. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB2 bit if Break MCU heximal.

PCINT2, Pin Change Interrupt source 2: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source when Break MCU heximal.

 

SCK/PCINT1 – Port B, Bit 1

SCK: Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1. When the SPI0 is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB1. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB1 bit when Break MCU heximal.

PCINT1, Pin Change Interrupt source 1: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source after Break MCU heximal.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering MCU Chip ATMEGA1284P Flash

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Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 37 shows how the port pin control signals from the simplified Figure 34 can be overridden by alternate functions.

The overriding signals may not be present in all port pins, but the figure serves as a generic description applicable to all port pins in the AVR mcu chip family when Reverse engineering Mcu chip.

When this bit is written to one, the pull-ups in the I/O ports are disabled even if the DDxn and PORTxn Registers are configured to enable the pull-ups ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) if Reverse engineering Mcu chip.

See “Configuring the Pin” on page 82 for more details about this feature. OC0A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter0 Output Compare.

The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC0A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function before Reverse engineering Mcu chip.

OC1C, Output Compare Match C output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C.

The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1C pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function after Reverse engineering Mcu chip.

PCINT7, Pin Change Interrupt source 7: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source if Reverse engineering Mcu chip. OC1B, Output Compare Match B output: The PB6 pin can serve as an external output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB6 set (one)) to serve this function.

The OC1B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function when Reverse engineering Mcu chip. PCINT6, Pin Change Interrupt source 6: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source after Reverse engineering Mcu chip.

PostHeaderIcon Break Mcu ATMEGA644PV Code

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The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT7:0 pin or any of the PCINT23..0 pins. Observe that, if enabled, the interrupts will trigger even if the INT7:0 or PCINT23..0 pins are configured as outputs. This feature provides a way of generating a software interrupt when Break Mcu.

The Pin change interrupt PCI2 will trigger if any enabled PCINT23:16 pin toggles, Pin change interrupt PCI1 if any enabled PCINT15:8 toggles and Pin change interrupts PCI0 will trigger if any enabled PCINT7..0 pin toggles. PCMSK2, PCMSK1 and PCMSK0 Registers control which pins contribute to the pin change interrupts if Break Mcu.

Pin change interrupts on PCINT23 ..0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode before Break Mcu.

The External Interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is set up as indicated in the specification for the External Interrupt Control Registers – EICRA (INT3:0) and EICRB (INT7:4). When the external interrupt is enabled and is configured as level triggered, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held low if Break Mcu.

Note that recognition of falling or rising edge interrupts on INT7:4 requires the presence of an I/O clock, described in “Clock Systems and their Distribution” on page 39. Low level interrupts and the edge interrupt on INT3:0 are detected asynchronously before Break Mcu.

 

This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock is halted in all sleep modes except Idle mode after Break Mcu.

Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down, the required level must be held long enough for the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger the level interrupt when Break Mcu.

If the level disappears before the end of the Start-up Time, the MCU will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the SUT and CKSEL Fuses as described in “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 39 if Break Mcu.

The External Interrupts 3 – 0 are activated by the external pins INT3:0 if the SREG I-flag and the corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins that activate the interrupts are defined in Table 31 when Break Mcu.

Edges on INT3..INT0 are registered asynchronously. Pulses on INT3:0 pins wider than the minimum pulse width given in Table 32 will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction to generate an interrupt before Break Mcu.

If enabled, a level triggered interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long as the pin is held low. When changing the ISCn bit, an interrupt can occur. Therefore, it is recommended to first disable INTn by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK Register after Break Mcu.

Then, the ISCn bit can be changed. Finally, the INTn interrupt flag should be cleared by writing a logical one to its Interrupt Flag bit (INTFn) in the EIFR Register before the interrupt is reenabled when Break Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Microcontroller ATMEGA644P Flash

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To further ensure program security, alterations to the Watchdog set-up must follow timed sequences. The sequence for clearing WDE and changing time-out configuration is as follows when Recover Microcontroller flash:

(WDCE) and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of the WDE bit. (WDP) as desired, but with the WDCE bit cleared. This must be done in one operation after Recover Microcontroller flash.

The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the Watchdog Timer. The example assumes that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during the execution of these functions if Recover Microcontroller flash.

Note: If the Watchdog is accidentally enabled, for example by a runaway pointer or brown-out condition, the device will be reset and the Watchdog Timer will stay enabled. If the code is not set up to handle the Watchdog, this might lead to an eternal loop of time-out resets after Recover Microcontroller flash.

To avoid this situation, the application software should always clear the Watchdog System Reset Flag (WDRF) and the WDE control bit in the initialisation routine, even if the Watchdog is not in use. In the same operation, write a logic one to the Watchdog change enable bit to Recover Microcontroller flash.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC PIC18F4620 Program

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Possible Hardware fuse Watchdog always on (WDTON) for fail-safe modeThe Watchdog Timer (WDT) is a timer counting cycles of a separate on-chip 128 kHz oscillator when Break IC Heximal.

The WDT gives an interrupt or a system reset when the counter reaches a given time-out value. In normal operation mode, it is required that the system uses the WDR – Watchdog Timer Reset – instruction to restart the counter before the time-out value is reached if Break IC Heximal.

If the system doesn’t restart the counter, an interrupt or system reset will be issued.

In Interrupt mode, the WDT gives an interrupt when the timer expires. This interrupt can be used to wake the device from sleep-modes, and also as a general system timer before Break IC Heximal.

One example is to limit the maximum time allowed for certain operations, giving an interrupt when the operation has run longer than expected after Break IC Heximal.

Within the next four clock cycles, write the WDE and Watchdog prescaler bitsIn System Reset mode, the WDT gives a reset when the timer expires after Break IC Heximal.

This is typically used to prevent system hang-up in case of runaway code. The third mode, Interrupt and System Reset mode, combines the other two modes by first giving an interrupt and then switch to System Reset mode when Break IC Heximal.

This mode will for instance allow a safe shutdown by saving critical parameters before a system reset. The Watchdog always on (WDTON) fuse, if programmed, will force the Watchdog Timer to System Reset mode if Break IC Heximal.

With the fuse programmed the System Reset mode bit (WDE) and Interrupt mode bit (WDIE) are locked to 1 and 0 respectively before Break IC Heximal.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATMEGA644PA Flash

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When the BOD is enabled, and VCC decreases to a value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure 29), the Brown-out Reset is immediately activated when recover mcu flash.

When VCC increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure 29), the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time- out period tTOUT has expired if recover mcu flash.

The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in VCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for longer than tBOD given in Table 23. When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration before recover mcu flash.

On the falling edge of this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out period tTOUT. See “Watchdog Timer” on page 56. for details on operation of the Watchdog Timer after recover mcu flash.

ATmega644PA features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for Brown-out Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the ADC when recover mcu flash.

The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The start-up time is given in Table 26. To save power, the reference is not always turned The reference is on during the following situations if recover mcu flash:

When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2..0] Fuse).

When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the ACBG bit in ACSR) before recover mcu flash.

When the ADC is enabled.

Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC, the user must always allow the reference to start up before the output from the Analog Comparator or ADC is used after recover mcu flash.

To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off before entering Power-down mode when recover mcu flash.

 

ATmega644PA has an Enhanced Watchdog Timer (WDT). The main features are:

Clocked from separate On-chip Oscillator

3 Operating modes

– Interrupt

– System Reset

– Interrupt and System Reset

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering IC ATMEGA644A Firmware

We can Reverse engineering IC ATMEGA644A Firmware, please view the IC ATMEGA644A features for your reference:

If the On-chip debug system is enabled by the OCDEN Fuse and the chip enters sleep mode, the main clock source is enabled, and hence, always consumes power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption when Reverse engineering IC.

There are three alternative ways to disable the OCD system: Disable the OCDEN Fuse. Disable the JTAGEN Fuse. Write one to the JTD bit in MCUCR if Reverse engineering IC.

During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a JMP – Absolute Jump – instruction to the reset handling routine after Reverse engineering IC.

If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program firmware can be placed at these locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa before Reverse engineering IC.

The circuit diagram in Figure 25 shows the reset logic. Table 23 defines the electrical parameters of the reset circuitry. The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes active. This does not require any clock source to be running if Reverse engineering IC.

After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal reset. This allows the power to reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out period of the delay counter is defined by the user through the SUT and CKSEL Fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in “Clock Sources” when Reverse engineering IC.

The ATmega644 has five sources of reset: Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on Reset threshold (VPOT). External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer than the minimum pulse length before Reverse engineering IC.

Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and the Watchdog is enabled. Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage VCC is below the Brown-out Reset threshold (VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled after Reverse engineering IC.

JTAG AVR Reset. The MCU is reset as long as there is a logic one in the Reset Register, one of the scan chains of the JTAG system. Refer to the section “IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan” on page 301 for details when Reverse engineering IC.

A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by an On-chip detection circuit. The detection level is defined in Table 23. The POR is activated whenever VCC is below the detection level. The POR circuit can be used to trigger the start-up Reset, as well as to detect a failure in supply voltage if Reverse engineering IC.

A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from Power-on. Reaching the Power-on Reset threshold voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the device is kept in RESET after VCC rise. The RESET signal is activated again, without any delay, when VCC decreases below the detection level before Reverse engineering IC.

An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin. Reset pulses longer than the minimum pulse width (see Table 23) will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. When the applied signal reaches the Reset Threshold Voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period – tTOUT – has expired after Reverse engineering IC.

ATmega644 has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the VCC level during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD can be selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The trigger level has a hysteresis to ensure spike free Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the detection level should be interpreted as VBOT+ = VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT – VHYST/2 if Reverse engineering IC.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Mcu ATMEGA644 Code

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There are several issues to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR controlled system. In general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep mode should be selected so that as few as possible of the device’s functions are operating when Recover Mcu.

All functions not needed should be disabled. In particular, the following modules may need special consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power consumption if Recover Mcu.

If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should be disabled before entering any sleep mode. When the ADC is turned off and on again, the next conversion will be an extended conversion. Refer to “Analog to Digital Converter” on page 274 for details on ADC operation before Recover Mcu.

When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. When entering ADC Noise Reduction mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled. In other sleep modes, the Analog Comparator is automatically disabled after Recover Mcu.

However, if the Analog Comparator is set up to use the Internal Voltage Reference as input, the Analog Comparator should be disabled in all sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled, independent of sleep mode. Refer to “Analog Comparator” on page 271 for details on how to configure the Analog Comparator if Recover Mcu.

If the Brown-out Detector is not needed by the application, this module should be turned off. If the Brown-out Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption when Recover Mcu.

Refer to “Brown-out Detection” on page 59 for details on how to configure the Brown-out Detector.

The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out Detection, the Analog Comparator or the ADC. If these modules are disabled as described in the sections above, the internal voltage reference will be disabled and it will not be consuming power before Recover Mcu.

When turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up before the output is used. If the reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to “Internal Voltage Reference” on page 62 for details on the start-up time when Recover Mcu.

If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off. If the Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. Refer to “Interrupts” on page 69 for details on how to configure the Watchdog Timer before Recover Mcu.

When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The most important is then to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where both the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC clock (clkADC) are stopped, the input buffers of the device will be disabled when Recover Mcu.

This ensures that no power is consumed by the input logic when not needed. In some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting wake-up conditions, and it will then be enabled. Refer to the section “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 85 for details on which pins are enabled if Recover Mcu.

If the input buffer is enabled and the input signal is left floating or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2, the input buffer will use excessive power. For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal level close to VCC/2 on an input pin can cause significant current even in active mode when Recover Mcu.

Digital input buffers can be disabled by writing to the Digital Input Disable Registers (DIDR2, DIDR1 and DIDR0). Refer to “Digital Input Disable Register 2 – DIDR2” on page 293, “Digital Input Disable Register 1 – DIDR1” on page 273 and “Digital Input Disable Register 0 – DIDR0” on page 293 for details after Recover Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Extract Chip ATMEGA324PA Code

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Bit 7 – PRTWI: Power Reduction TWI

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the TWI by stopping the clock to the module.

When waking up the TWI again, the TWI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation when extract chip code.

 

Bit 6 – PRTIM2: Power Reduction Timer/Counter2

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter2 module in synchronous mode (AS2 is 0). When the Timer/Counter2 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown if extract chip code.

 

Bit 5 – PRTIM0: Power Reduction Timer/Counter0

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the Timer/Counter0 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown before extract chip code.

 

Bit 4 – Res: Reserved bit

This bit is reserved bit and will always read as zero.

 

Bit 3 – PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown after extract chip code.

 

Bit 2 – PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Serial Peripheral Interface by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.

 

Bit 1 – PRUSART0: Power Reduction USART0

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART0 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USART0 again, the USART0 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation when extract chip code.

 

Bit 0 – PRADC: Power Reduction ADC

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the ADC. The ADC must be disabled before shut down. The analog comparator cannot use the ADC input MUX when the ADC is shut down.

 

Bit 7..6 – Res: Reserved bits

These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.

 

Bit 5 – PRTIM5: Power Reduction Timer/Counter5

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter5 module. When the Timer/Counter5 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown if extract chip code.

Bit 4 – PRTIM4: Power Reduction Timer/Counter4

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter4 module. When the Timer/Counter4 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.

 

Bit 3 – PRTIM3: Power Reduction Timer/Counter3

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter3 module. When the Timer/Counter3 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown before extract chip code.

 

Bit 2 – PRUSART3: Power Reduction USART3

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART3 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USART3 again, the USART3 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.

 

Bit 1 – PRUSART2: Power Reduction USART2

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART2 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USART2 again, the USART2 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation after extract chip code.

 

Bit 0 – PRUSART1: Power Reduction USART1

Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART1 by stopping the clock to the module. When waking up the USART1 again, the USART1 should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.