Archive for November, 2010

PostHeaderIcon Recovery Mcu ATMEGA324V Code

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The device can utilize a 32.768 kHz watch crystal as clock source by a dedicated Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator. The crystal should be connected as shown in Figure 22 when Recovery Mcu.

When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses and CKSEL0 as shown in Table 13 before Recovery Mcu.

The calibrated internal RC Oscillator by default provides a 8.0 MHz clock. The frequency is nominal value at 3V and 25°C. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed if Recovery Mcu.

See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 48 for more details. This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in Table when Recovery Mcu

If selected, it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads the calibration byte into the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. At 3V and 25°C, this calibration gives a frequency of 8 MHz ± 1% before Recovery Mcu.

The oscillator can be calibrated to any frequency in the range 7.3 – 8.1 MHz within ±1% accuracy, by changing the OSCCAL register after Recovery Mcu.

When this Oscillator is used as the mcu clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the Watchdog Timer and for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value, see the section “Calibration Byte” on page 338 before Recovery Mcu.

The device is shipped with this option selected.

The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.

If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC); The CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 15 on page 46 when Recovery Mcu.

The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator to remove process variations from the oscillator frequency. The factory-calibrated value is automatically written to this register during mcu reset, giving an oscillator frequency of 8.0 MHz at 25°C. The application software can write this register to change the oscillator frequency if Recovery Mcu.

The oscillator can be calibrated to any frequency in the range 7.3 – 8.1 MHz within ±1% accuracy. Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed after Recovery Mcu.

Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses, and these write times will be affected accordingly. If the EEPROM or Flash are written, do not calibrate to more than 8.8 MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM or Flash write may fail.

The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the lowest frequency range, setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range when Recovery Mcu.

The two frequency ranges are overlapping, in other words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80.

The CAL6..0 bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00 gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the range. Incrementing CAL6..0 by 1 will give a frequency increment of less than 2% in the frequency range 7.3 – 8.1 MHz if Recovery Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse engineering Chip ATMEGA324 Code

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The device can utilize a 32.768 kHz watch crystal as clock source by a dedicated Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator. The crystal should be connected as shown in Figure 22 when Reverse engineering Chip .

When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses and CKSEL0 as shown in Table 13. The calibrated internal RC Oscillator by default provides a 8.0 MHz clock. The frequency is nominal value at 3V and 25°C. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed if Reverse engineering Chip.

See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 48 for more details. This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in Table If selected, it will operate with no external components before Reverse engineering Chip .

During reset, hardware loads the calibration byte into the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. At 3V and 25°C, this calibration gives a frequency of 8 MHz ± 1% after Reverse engineering Chip .

The oscillator can be calibrated to any frequency in the range 7.3 – 8.1 MHz within ±1% accuracy, by changing the OSCCAL register. When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the Watchdog Timer and for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed calibration value, see the section “Calibration Byte” on page 338 before Reverse engineering Chip .

The device is shipped with this option selected.

The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.

If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in Table 15 on page 46 after Reverse engineering Chip .

The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator to remove process variations from the oscillator frequency before Reverse engineering Chip.

The factory-calibrated value is automatically written to this register during chip reset, giving an oscillator frequency of 8.0 MHz at 25°C. The application software can write this register to change the oscillator frequency if Reverse engineering Chip.

The oscillator can be calibrated to any frequency in the range 7.3 – 8.1 MHz within ±1% accuracy. Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed when Reverse engineering Chip.

Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses, and these write times will be affected accordingly. If the EEPROM or Flash are written, do not calibrate to more than 8.8 MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM or Flash write may fail.

The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the lowest frequency range, setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two frequency ranges are overlapping, in other words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80 before Reverse engineering Chip.

The CAL6..0 bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00 gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the range. Incrementing CAL6..0 by 1 will give a frequency increment of less than 2% in the frequency range 7.3 – 8.1 MHz after Reverse engineering Chip.

The 128 kHz internal Oscillator is a low power Oscillator providing a clock of 128 kHz. The frequency is nominal at 3V and 25°C. This clock may be select as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses to “11” as shown in Table 16.

When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock frequency to ensure stable operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from one clock cycle to the next can lead to unpredictable behavior if Reverse engineering Chip.

If changes of more than 2% is required, ensure that the MCU is kept in Reset during the changes. Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal clock frequency while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to “System Clock Prescaler” on page 48 for details when Reverse engineering Chip.

PostHeaderIcon Break Microcontroller ATMEGA164PV Code

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The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.

This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators when Break MICROCONTROLLER.

If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock meets the frequency specification of the device before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for crystals after Break MICROCONTROLLER.

These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up. They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 22. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

This Crystal Oscillator is a full swing oscillator, with rail-to-rail swing on the XTAL2 output. This is useful for driving other clock inputs and in noisy environments. The current consumption is higher than the “Low Power Crystal Oscillator” on page 41. Note that the Full Swing Crystal Oscillator will only operate for Vcc = 2.7 – 5.5 volts after Break MICROCONTROLLER.

C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment when Break MICROCONTROLLER. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 12. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by the manufacturer should be used if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

The operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3..1 as shown in Table 11.

The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.

If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8 Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured that the resulting divided clock meets the frequency specification of the device before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These options are not suitable for crystals after Break MICROCONTROLLER.

These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability at start-up. They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering IC ATMEGA164V Code

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The device is shipped with internal RC oscillator at 8.0MHz and with the fuse CKDIV8 programmed, resulting in 1.0MHz system clock. The startup time is set to maximum and time-out period enabled when Reverse engineering IC.

(CKSEL = “0010”, SUT = “10”, CKDIV8 = “0”). The default setting ensures that all users can make their desired clock source setting using any available programming interface if Reverse engineering IC.

Any clock source needs a sufficient VCC to start oscillating and a minimum number of oscillating cycles before it can be considered stable before Reverse engineering IC.

To ensure sufficient VCC, the device issues an internal reset with a time-out delay (tTOUT) after the device reset is released by all other reset sources. “On-chip Debug System” on page 56 describes the start conditions for the internal reset if Reverse engineering IC.

The delay (tTOUT) is timed from the Watchdog Oscillator and the number of cycles in the delay is set by the SUTx and CKSELx fuse bits. The selectable delays are shown in Table 8. The frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as shown in “ATmega164 Typical Characteristics – Preliminary Data” before Reverse engineering IC.

Main purpose of the delay is to keep the AVR in reset until it is supplied with minimum Vcc. The delay will not monitor the actual voltage and it will be required to select a delay longer than the Vcc rise time. If this is not possible, an internal or external Brown-Out Detection circuit should be used after Reverse engineering IC.

A BOD circuit will ensure sufficient Vcc before it releases the reset, and the time-out delay can be disabled. Disabling the time-out delay without utilizing a Brown-Out Detection circuit is not recommended when Reverse engineering IC.

The oscillator is required to oscillate for a minimum number of cycles before the clock is considered stable. An internal ripple counter monitors the oscillator output clock, and keeps the internal reset active for a given number of clock cycles. The reset is then released and the device will start to execute when Reverse engineering IC.

The recommended oscillator start-up time is dependent on the clock type, and varies from 6 cycles for an externally applied clock to 32K cycles for a low frequency crystal after Reverse engineering IC.

The start-up sequence for the clock includes both the time-out delay and the start-up time when the device starts up from reset. When starting up from Power-save or Power down mode, Vcc is assumed to be at a sufficient level and only the start-up time is included before Reverse engineering IC.

Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 22. Either a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator may be used if Reverse engineering IC.

This Crystal Oscillator is a low power oscillator, with reduced voltage swing on the XTAL2 output. It gives the lowest power consumption, but is not capable of driving other clock inputs, and may be more susceptible to noise in noisy environments. In these cases, refer to the “Full Swing Crystal Oscillator” on page 43.

C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for use with crystals are given in Table 9. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by the manufacturer should be used before Reverse engineering IC.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATMEGA164PA Code

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Since the external memory is mapped after the internal memory as shown in Figure 14, the external memory is not addressed when addressing the first 8,704 bytes of data space when Recover MCU.

It may appear that the first 8,704 bytes of the external memory are inaccessible (external memory addresses 0x0000 to 0x21FF). However, when connecting an external memory smaller than 64 KB, for example 32 KB, these locations are easily accessed simply by addressing from address 0x8000 to 0xA1FF if Recover MCU.

Since the External Memory Address bit A15 is not connected to the external memory, addresses 0x8000 to 0xA1FF will appear as addresses 0x0000 to 0x21FF for the external memory before Recover MCU.

Addressing above address 0xA1FF is not recommended, since this will address an external memory location that is already accessed by another (lower) address. To the Application software, the external 32 KB memory will appear as one linear 32 KB address space from 0x2200 to 0xA1FF. This is illustrated in Figure 20 after Recover MCU.

Since the External Memory is mapped after the Internal Memory as shown in Figure 14,only 56KB of External Memory is available by default (address space 0x0000 to 0x21FF is reserved for internal memory). However, it is possible to take advantage of the entire External Memory by masking the higher address bits to zero when Recover MCU.

This can be done by using the XMMn bits and control by software the most significant bits of the address. By setting Port C to output 0x00, and releasing the most significant bits for normal Port Pin operation, the Memory Interface will address 0x0000 – 0x2FFF. See the following code examples if Recover MCU.

Care must be exercised using this option as most of the memory is masked away. Figure 21 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their distribution. All of the clocks need not be active at a given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to modules not being used can be halted by using different sleep modes, as described in “Power Management and Sleep Modes” on page 51. The clock systems are detailed below before Recover MCU.

The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core. Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status Register and the data memory holding the Stack Pointer. Halting the CPU clock inhibits the core from performing general operations and calculations after Recover MCU.

The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, and USART. The I/O clock is also used by the External Interrupt module, but note that some external interrupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing such interrupts to be detected even if the I/O clock is halted.

Also note that start condition detection in the USI module is carried out asynchronously when clkI/O is halted, TWI address recognition in all sleep modes if Recover MCU.

The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually active simultaneously with the CPU clock. The Asynchronous Timer clock allows the Asynchronous Timer/Counter to be clocked directly from an external clock or an external 32 kHz clock crystal.

The dedicated clock domain allows using this Timer/Counter as a real-time counter even when the device is in sleep mode. The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks in order to reduce noise generated by digital circuitry after Recover MCU.

This gives more accurate ADC conversion results. The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown below. The clock from the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the appropriate modules.

PostHeaderIcon Break Chip ATMEGA164A Code

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External Memory devices have different timing requirements. To meet these requirements, the XMEM interface provides four different wait-states as shown in Table 5. It is important to consider the timing specification of the External Memory device before selecting the wait-state when Break Chip.

The most important parameters are the access time for the external memory compared to the set-up requirement. The access time for the External Memory is defined to be the time from receiving the chip select/address until the data of this address actually is driven on the bus if Break Chip.

The access time cannot exceed the time from the ALE pulse must be asserted low until data is stable during a read sequence (See tLLRL+ tRLRH – tDVRH in Tables 169 through Tables 176 on pages 376 – 378) when Break Chip.

The different wait-states are set up in software. As an additional feature, it is possible to divide the external memory space in two sectors with individual wait-state settings before Break Chip.

This makes it possible to connect two different memory devices with different timing requirements to the same XMEM interface. For XMEM interface timing details, please refer to Table 169 to Table 176 and Figure 161 to Figure 164 in the “External Data Memory Timing” on page 376 after Break Chip.

Note that the XMEM interface is asynchronous and that the waveforms in the following figures are related to the internal system clock. The skew between the internal and external clock (XTAL1) is not guarantied (varies between devices temperature, and supply voltage). Consequently, the XMEM interface is not suited for synchronous operation when Break Chip.

Bit 7 – SRE: External SRAM/XMEM Enable

Writing SRE to one enables the External Memory Interface.The pin functions AD7:0, A15:8, ALE, WR, and RD are activated as the alternate pin functions. The SRE bit overrides any pin direction settings in the respective data direction registers. Writing SRE to zero, disables the External Memory Interface and the normal pin and data direction set-tings are used if Break Chip.

 

Bit 6..4 – SRL2:0: Wait-state Sector Limit

It is possible to configure different wait-states for different External Memory addresses. The external memory address space can be divided in two sectors that have separate wait-state bits. The SRL2, SRL1, and SRL0 bits select the split of the sectors, see Table 4 and Figure 14 after Break Chip.

By default, the SRL2, SRL1, and SRL0 bits are set to zero and the entire external memory address space is treated as one sector. When the entire SRAM address space is configured as one sector, the wait-states are configured by the SRW11 and SRW10 bits when Break Chip.

Bit 7– XMBK: External Memory Bus-keeper Enable

Writing XMBK to one enables the bus keeper on the AD7:0 lines. When the bus keeper is enabled, AD7:0 will keep the last driven value on the lines even if the XMEM interface has tri-stated the lines. Writing XMBK to zero disables the bus keeper. XMBK is not qualified with SRE, so even if the XMEM interface is disabled, the bus keepers are still activated as long as XMBK is one before Break Chip.

 

Bit 6..3 – Res: Reserved Bits

These bits are reserved and will always read as zero. When writing to this address location, write these bits to zero for compatibility with future devices after Break Chip.

 

Bit 2..0 – XMM2, XMM1, XMM0: External Memory High Mask

When the External Memory is enabled, all Port C pins are default used for the high address byte. If the full 60KB address space is not required to access the External Memory, some, or all, Port C pins can be released for normal Port Pin function as described in Table 6. As described in “Using all 64KB Locations of External Memory” on page 36, it is possible to use the XMMn bits to access all 64KB locations of the External Memory if Break Chip.

PostHeaderIcon Break MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA164 Code

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With all the features the External Memory Interface provides, it is well suited to operate as an interface to memory devices such as External SRAM and Flash, and peripherals such as LCD-display, A/D, and D/A. The main features are when Break MICROCONTROLLER:

Four different wait-state settings (including no wait-state).

Independent wait-state setting for different extErnal Memory sectors (configurable sector size).

The number of bits dedicated to address high byte is selectable.

Bus keepers on data lines to minimize current consumption (optional) if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

 

When the eXternal MEMory (XMEM) is enabled, address space outside the internal SRAM becomes available using the dedicated External Memory pins (see Figure 2 on page 3, Table 36 on page 88, Table 42 on page 92, and Table 54 on page 102). The memory configuration is shown in Figure 14 before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

The interface consists of: AD7:0: Multiplexed low-order address bus and data bus.

A15:8: High-order address bus (configurable number of bits).

ALE: Address latch enable before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

RD: Read strobe.

WR: Write strobe.

The control bits for the External Memory Interface are located in two registers, the External Memory Control Register A – XMCRA, and the External Memory Control Register B– XMCRB before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

When the XMEM interface is enabled, the XMEM interface will override the setting in the data direction registers that corresponds to the ports dedicated to the XMEM interface.

For details about the port override, see the alternate functions in section “I/O-Ports” on page 81. The XMEM interface will auto-detect whether an access is internal or external if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

If the access is external, the XMEM interface will output address, data, and the control signals on the ports according to Figure 16 (this figure shows the wave forms without wait-states). When ALE goes from high-to-low, there is a valid address on AD7:0. ALE is low during a data transfer when Break MICROCONTROLLER.

When the XMEM interface is enabled, also an internal access will cause activity on address, data and ALE ports, but the RD and WR strobes will not toggle during internal access. When the External Memory Interface is disabled, the normal pin and data direction settings are used after Break MICROCONTROLLER.

Note that when the XMEM interface is disabled, the address space above the internal SRAM boundary is not mapped into the internal SRAM. Figure 15 illustrates how to connect an external SRAM to the AVR using an octal latch (typically “74 x 573” or equivalent) which is transparent when G is high if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

Due to the high-speed operation of the XRAM interface, the address latch must be selected with care for system frequencies above 8 MHz @ 4V and 4 MHz @ 2.7V.

When operating at conditions above these frequencies, the typical old style 74HC series latch becomes inadequate. The External Memory Interface is designed in compliance to the 74AHC series latch. However, most latches can be used as long they comply with the main timing parameters. The main parameters for the address latch are:

 

D to Q propagation delay (tPD).

Data setup time before G low (tSU).

Data (address) hold time after G low (TH).

 

The External Memory Interface is designed to guaranty minimum address hold time after G is asserted low of th = 5 ns. Refer to tLAXX_LD/tLLAXX_ST in “External Data Memory Timing” Tables 169 through Tables 176 on pages 376 – 378 before Break MICROCONTROLLER.

The D-to-Q propagation delay (tPD) must be taken into consideration when calculating the access time requirement of the external component. The data setup time before G low (tSU) must not exceed address valid to ALE low (tAVLLC) minus PCB wiring delay (dependent on the capacitive load) if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

The pull-ups on the AD7:0 ports may be activated if the corresponding Port register is written to one. To reduce power consumption in sleep mode, it is recommended to disable the pull-ups by writing the Port register to zero before entering sleep after Break MICROCONTROLLER.

The XMEM interface also provides a bus-keeper on the AD7:0 lines. The bus-keeper can be disabled and enabled in software as described in “External Memory Control Register B – XMCRB” on page 35. When enabled, the bus-keeper will keep the previous value on the AD7:0 bus while these lines are tri-stated by the XMEM interface if Break MICROCONTROLLER.

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The EEPROM Read Enable Signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct address is set up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logMCU one to trigger the EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one instruction, and the requested data is available immediately when Recover MCU.

When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four cycles before the next instruction is executed. The user should poll the EEPE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in progress, it is neither possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR Register if Recover MCU.

The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 3 lists the typMCUal programming time for EEPROM access from the CPU. The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions before Recover MCU.

The examples also assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such code is present, the EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM command to finish. The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM after Recover MCU.

The examples assume that interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions. During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is too low for the CPU and the EEPROM to operate properly if Recover MCU.

These issues are the  same as for board level systems using EEPROM, and the same design solutions should be applied. An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First, a regular write sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly when Recover MCU.

Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage is too low. EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation after Recover MCU:

Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insuffMCUient power supply voltage. This can be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal BOD does not match the needed detection level, an external low VCC reset Protection circuit can be used before Recover MCU.

If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply voltage is suffMCUient when Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC PIC16F917 Heximal

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The external Resistor-Capacitor (RC) modes support the use of an external RC circuit. This allows the designer maximum flexibility in frequency choice while keeping costs to a minimum when clock accuracy is not required. There are two modes: RC and RCIO when Break IC.

In RC mode, the RC circuit connects to OSC1. OSC2/CLKOUT outputs the RC oscillator frequency divided by 4. This signal may be used to provide a clock for external circuitry, synchronization, calibration, test or other application requirements. Figure 4-5 shows the external RC mode connections after Break IC.

The INTOSC and INTOSCIO modes configure the internal oscillators as the system clock source when (SCS) bit of the OSCCON register when Break IC. user-adjusted via software using the OSCTUNE register (Register 4-2).

2. The LFINTOSC (Low-Frequency Internal Oscillator) is uncalibrated and operates at 31 kHz. The system clock speed can be selected via software if Break IC.

INTERNAL CLOCK MODEL

The Oscillator module has two independent, internal oscillators that can be configured or selected as the system clock source.

1. The HFINTOSC (High-Frequency Internal Oscillator) is factory calibrated and operates at 8 MHz. The frequency of the HFINTOSC can be user-adjusted via software using the OSCTUNE register (Register 4-2) for the purpose of Break IC.

2. The LFINTOSC (Low-Frequency Internal Oscillator) is uncalibrated and operates at 31 kHz. The system clock speed can be selected via software using the Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits IRCF<2:0> of the OSCCON register. an>

The INTOSC and INTOSCIO modes configure the internal oscillators as the system clock source when bit of the OSCCON register. See Section 4.6  user-adjusted via software using the OSCTUNE register (Register 4-2) When break IC.

2. The LFINTOSC (Low-Frequency Internal Oscillator) is uncalibrated and operates at 31 kHz. The system clock speed can be selected via software if break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Copy MCU PIC16F916 Binary

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DEVICE OVERVIEW

The PIC16F91X/946 devices are covered by this datasheet. They are available in 28/40/44/64-pin packages. Figure 1-1 shows a block diagram of the PIC16F913/916 device, Figure 1-2 shows a block diagram of the PIC16F914/917 device, and Figure 1-3 shows a block diagram of the PIC16F946 device. Table 1-1 shows the pinout descriptions when Copy MCU.

MEMORY ORGANIZATION

The PIC16F91X/946 has a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing a 4K x 14 program memory space for the PIC16F913/914 (0000h-0FFFh) and an 8K x 14 program memory space for the PIC16F916/917 and PIC16F946 (0000h-1FFFh). Accessing a location above the memory boundaries for the PIC16F913 and PIC16F914 will cause a wrap around within the first 4K x 14 space. The Reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h after Copy MCU.

DATA MEMORY ORGANIZATION

The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers (GPRs) and the Special Function Registers (SFRs). Bits RP0 and RP1 are bank select bits if Copy MCU.

 

Bank 0 is selected

Bank 1 is selected

Bank 2 is selected

Bank 3 is selected

 

Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are the General Purpose Registers, implemented as static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special Function Registers. Some frequently used Special Function Registers from one bank are mirrored in another bank for code reduction and quicker access when Copy MCU.

2.2.1

 

GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER

The register file is organized as 256 x 8 bits in the PIC16F913/914, 352 x 8 bits in the PIC16F916/917 and 336 x 8 bits in the PIC16F946. Each register is accessed either directly or indirectly through the File Select for the purpose of Copy MCU

Register (FSR) (see Section 2.5 “Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR Registers”).

SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS

The Special Function Registers are registers used by the CPU and peripheral functions for controlling the desired operation of the device (see Tables 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 and 2-4). These registers are static RAM after Copy MCU.

The Special Function Registers can be classified into two sets: core and peripheral. The Special Function Registers associated with the “core” are described in this section. Those related to the operation of the peripheral features are described in the section of that peripheral feature if Recover MCU.