Archive for October, 2010

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATTINY88A Program

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The ATtiny48/88 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny48/88 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed when Recover MCU.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle if Recover MCU.

The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. The ATtiny48/88 provides the following features: 4/8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash, 64/64 bytes EEPROM, 256/512 bytes SRAM, 24 general purpose I/O lines (28 I/Os in 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN/MLF packages) b efore Recover MCU.

32 general purpose working registers, two flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface, an SPI serial port, a 6-channel 10-bit ADC (8 channels in 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN/MLF packages), a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes after Recover MCU.

Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing Timer/Counters, 2-wire serial interface, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other MCU functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, and helps to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions if Recover MCU.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-MCU ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer, or by an on-MCU boot program running on the AVR core when Recover MCU.

The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Flash memory. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic MCU, the Atmel ATtiny48/88 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications before Recover MCU.

The ATtiny48/88 AVR is supported by a full suite of program and system development tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators and evaluation kits. This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device after Recover MCU.

These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details when Recover MCU.

For I/O Registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR” if Recover MCU.

Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less than 1 PPM over 20 years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C. Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized after Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATTINY88V Software

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The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations when Recover Mcu.

This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled if Recover Mcu.

The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0200. The initial value of the stack pointer is the last address of the internal SRAM. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by three when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt before Recover Mcu.

The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by three when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI after Recover Mcu.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed when Recover Mcu.

In this case, the SPH Register will not be present. This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the chip. No internal clock division is used if Recover Mcu.

Figure 9 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit when Recover Mcu.

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt after Recover Mcu.

Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security when Recover Mcu.

The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in “Interrupts” on page 69. The list also determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level if Recover Mcu.

RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request 0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR) when Recover Mcu.

Refer to “Interrupts” on page 69 for more information. The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the BOOTRST Fuse. When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled before Recover Mcu.

The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested inter rupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed when Recover Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY88 Heximal

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High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller when Break IC

Advanced RISC Architecture

– 123 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution

– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers

– Fully Static Operation if Break IC

 

High Endurance Non-volatile Memory Segments

– 4K/8K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash program memory(ATtiny48/88)

 

– 64/64 Bytes EEPROM (ATtiny48/88)

– 256/512 Bytes Internal SRAM (ATtiny48/88)

– Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM before Break IC

– Data retention: 20 years at 85°C / 100 years at 25°C

– Programming Lock for Software Security

Peripheral Features

– One 8-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode

– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Prescaler, and Compare and Capture Modes

– 8-channel 10-bit ADC in 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN/MLF package

– 6-channel 10-bit ADC in 28-pin PDIP and 28-pad QFN/MLF package after Break IC

– Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface

– Byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface (Philips I2C Compatible)

– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator when Break IC

– On-chip Analog Comparator

– Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change

Special Microcontroller Features if Break IC

– debugWIRE On-chip Debug System

– In-System Programmable via SPI Port

– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection

– Internal Calibrated Oscillator before Break IC

– External and Internal Interrupt Sources

– Three Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction and Power-down I/O and Packages after Break IC

– 28 Programmable I/O Lines in 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN/MLF package

– 24 Programmable I/O Lines in 28-pin PDIP and 28-pad QFN/MLF package

– 28-pin PDIP, 32-lead TQFP, 28-pad QFN/MLF and 32-pad QFN/MLF before Break IC

Operating Voltage:

– 1.8 – 5.5V

Temperature Range:

– -40°C to +85°C

Speed Grade:

– 0 – 4 MHz @ 1.8 – 5.5V

– 0 – 8 MHz @ 2.7 – 5.5V

– 0 – 12 MHz @ 4.5 – 5.5V

 

– Active Mode: 1 MHz, 1.8V: 240µA

– Power-down Mode: 0.1µA at 1.8V

Port A is a 4-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit) in 32-lead TQFP and 32-pad QFN/MLF package. The PA3..0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability when Break IC.

As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tristated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running before Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY48A Software

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The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations when Break IC.

This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled if Break IC.

The Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0200. The initial value of the stack pointer is the last address of the internal SRAM. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by three when the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt before Break IC.

The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by three when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI after Break IC.

The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed if Break IC.

In this case, the SPH Register will not be present. This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the chip. No internal clock division is used when Break IC.

Figure 9 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit when Break IC.

The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt before Break IC.

Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section “Memory Programming” on page 335 for details before Break IC.

The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in “Interrupts” on page 69. The list also determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level after Break IC.

RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request 0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR) if Break IC.

Refer to “Interrupts” on page 69 for more information. The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the BOOTRST Fuse, see “Memory Programming” on page 335.

When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed when Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Copy Microcontroller PIC16F639 Heximal

Copy Microcontroller PIC16F639 Heximal

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A single comparator is shown in Figure 6-1, along with the relationship between the analog input levels and the digital output. When the analog input at VIN+ is less than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital low level. When the analog input at VIN+ is greater than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital high level. The shaded areas of the output of the comparator in Figure 6-1 represent the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time when Copy Microcontroller.

The polarity of the comparator output can be inverted by setting the CINV bit (CMCON<4>). Clearing CINV results in a non-inverted output. A complete table showing the output state versus input conditions and VIN-the polarity bit after Copy Microcontroller.

There are eight modes of operation for the comparator. The CMCON register, shown in Register 6-1, is used to select the mode. Figure 6-2 shows the eight possible modes. The TRISA register controls the data direction of the comparator pins for each mode.

If the Comparator mode is changed, the comparator output

The CMCON register, shown in Register 6-1, is used to select the mode. Figure 6-2 shows the eight possible modes. The TRISA register controls the data direction of the comparator pins for each mode if Copy Microcontroller.

A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in Figure 6-3. Since the analog pins are connected to a digital output, they have reverse biased diodes to VDD and VSS. The analog input, therefore, must be between VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this libri the polarity bit for the purpose of Copy Microcontroller.

Response time is the minimum time, after selecting a new reference voltage or input source, before the comparator output is ensured to have a valid level. If the internal reference is changed, the maximum delay of the internal voltage reference must be considered when using the comparator outputs. Otherwise, the maximum delay of the comparators should be used H-CN when Copy Microcontroller;

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATMEGA128A Eprom

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The Atmel QTouch Library provides a simple to use solution to realize touch sensitive interfaces on most Atmel AVR microcontrollers. The QTouch Library includes support for the QTouch and QMatrix acquisition methods when Break IC.

Touch sensing can be added to any application by linking the appropriate Atmel QTouch Library for the AVR Microcontroller. This is done by using a simple set of APIs to define the touch channels and sensors, and then calling the touch sensing API’s to retrieve the channel information and determine the touch sensor states if Break IC.

The QTouch Library is FREE and downloadable from the Atmel website at the following location: www.atmel.com/qtouchlibrary. For implementation details and other information, refer to the Atmel QTouch Library User Guide – also available for download from the Atmel website before Break IC.

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer Stabilizing time needed when changing XDIV Register

Stabilizing time needed when changing OSCCAL Register after Break IC

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

Breaking EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed when Break IC

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices if Break IC.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion.

 

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00 before Break IC.

Problem Fix/Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx), asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register (OCRx) after Break IC.

 

Stabilizing time needed when changing XDIV Register

After increasing the source clock frequency more than 2% with settings in the XDIV register, the device may execute some of the subsequent instructions incorrectly when Break IC.

Problem Fix / Workaround

The NOP instruction will always be executed correctly also right after a frequency change.

Thus, the next 8 instructions after the change should be NOP instructions. To ensure this, follow this procedure if Break IC:

1.Clear the I bit in the SREG Register.

2.Set the new pre-scaling factor in XDIV register.

3.Execute 8 NOP instructions

4.Set the I bit in SREG

This will ensure that all subsequent instructions will execute correctly.

Assembly Code Example:

Stabilizing time needed when changing OSCCAL Register before Break IC

After increasing the source clock frequency more than 2% with settings in the OSCCAL register, the device may execute some of the subsequent instructions incorrectly.

Problem Fix / Workaround

The behavior follows errata number 3., and the same Fix / Workaround is applicable on this errata.

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are replaced by all-ones during Update-DR after Break IC.

Problem Fix / Workaround

If ATmega128 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible.

Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega128 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to break out the contents of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan chain. Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega128 while breaking the Device ID Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain when Break IC.

If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega128 must be the fist device in the chain.

 

Breaking EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request.

Breaking EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller ATMEGA16PA Heximal

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First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will

take longer than expected on some devices.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable the Analog Comparator before the first conversion.

 

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer

clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor

0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx), asynchronous

Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx).

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are

replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible.

Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or

by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to reverse engineering out the contents

of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan

chain. Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while reverse engineeringing the Device ID

Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain.

If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured simultaneously, the ATmega16 must be the fist device in the chain.

 

Reverse engineeringing EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt

request.

Reverse engineeringing EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR reg-

ister triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR.

First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed

If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will

take longer than expected on some devices.

Problem Fix/Workaround

When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable the Analog Comparator

before the first conversion.

 

Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer

The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronized to the asynchronous timer

clock is written when the asynchronous Timer/Counter register(TCNTx) is 0x00.

Problem Fix / Workaround

Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF nor

0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register(TCCRx), asynchronous

Timer Counter Register(TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare Register(OCRx).

 

IDCODE masks data from TDI input

The JTAG instruction IDCODE is not working correctly. Data to succeeding devices are

replaced by all-ones during Update-DR.

Problem Fix / Workaround

If ATmega16 is the only device in the scan chain, the problem is not visible.

Select the Device ID Register of the ATmega16 by issuing the IDCODE instruction or

by entering the Test-Logic-Reset state of the TAP controller to reverse engineering out the contents

of its Device ID Register and possibly data from succeeding devices of the scan

chain. Issue the BYPASS instruction to the ATmega16 while reverse engineeringing the Device ID

Registers of preceding devices of the boundary scan chain.

If the Device IDs of all devices in the boundary scan chain must be captured.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY48V Firmware

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The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled.

The individual interrupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt enable settings when Break IC.

The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference if Break IC.

Bit 6 – T: Bit Break Storage

The Bit Break instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD instruction before Break IC.

 

Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag

The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is

useful in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information after Break IC.

The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information when Break IC.

Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag

The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See

the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information if Break IC.

 

Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag

The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See

the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information before Break IC.

 

Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag

The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the

“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information after Break IC.

 

Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag

The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruc-

tion Set Description” for detailed information.

The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to

achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are

supported by the Register File when Break IC:

 

One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input

Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input

One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input if Break IC

 

Figure 5 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.

Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers,

and most of them are single cycle instructions before Break IC.

As shown in Figure 5, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping

them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being phys-

ically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great

flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to

index any register in the file after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATTINY48 Heximal

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During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM when Recover Mcu.

All user programs must initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture if Recover Mcu.

The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps. A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate Interrupt Vector in the Interrupt Vector table when Recover Mcu.

The interrupts have priority in accordance with their Interrupt Vector position. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher the priority. The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions before Recover Mcu.

The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 – 0x5F. In addition, the ATtiny48 has Extended I/O space from 0x60 – 0x1FF in SRAM where only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used after Recover Mcu.

The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose working registers. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a register and an immediate are executed before Recover Mcu.

The ALU operations are divided into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. Some implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format. See the “Instruction Set” section for a detailed description after Recover Mcu.

The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU operations, as specified in the Instruction Set Reference if Recover Mcu.

This will in many cases remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code. The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by software when Recover Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATMEGA2561V Eeprom

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This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details when Recover MCU.

These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR” if Recover MCU.

This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories, perform calculations, control peripherals, and handle interrupts before Recover MCU.

In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory after Recover MCU.

This concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory. The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time when Recover MCU.

This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle if Recover MCU.

Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for

Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash program memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section before Recover MCU.

The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation after Recover MCU.

Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word format. Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction when Recover MCU.

Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program section and the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must reside in the Boot Program section if Recover MCU.