Archive for August, 2010

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller ATTINY461 Code

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller ATTINY461 Code, please view the Microcontroller ATTINY461 features for your reference:

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.

The ATtiny261/461/861 provides the following features: 2/4/8K byte of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256/512 bytes EEPROM, 128/256/512 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one 8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, one 8-bit high speed Timer/Counter, Universal Serial Interface, Internal and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter, ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The fast-access register file concept contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single clock cycle access time. This means that during one single clock cycle, one ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) operation is executed. Two operands are output from the register file, the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the register file – in one clock cycle before Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bits indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of the three address pointers is also used as the address pointer for the constant table look up function after Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

These added function registers are the 16-bits X-register, Y-register and Z-register. The ALU supports arithmetic and logic functions between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations are also executed in the ALU when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

Figure 4 shows the AT90S2313 AVR Enhanced RISC microcontroller architecture. In addition to the register operation, the conventional memory addressing modes can be used on the register file as well. This is enabled by the fact that the register file is assigned the 32 lowermost Data Space addresses ($00 – $1F), allowing them to be accessed as though they were ordinary memory locations before Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Registers, Timer/Counters, A/D-converters, and other I/O functions. The I/O memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data Space locations following those of the register file, $20 – $5F after Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The ATtiny261/461/861 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATTINY261V Code

We can Recover MCU ATTINY261V Code, please view the MCU ATTINY261V features for your reference:

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle when Recover MCU.

The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers if Recover MCU.

The ATtiny261/461/861 provides the following features: 2/4/8K byte of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256/512 bytes EEPROM, 128/256/512 bytes SRAM, 6 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, one 8-bit Timer/Counter with compare modes, one 8-bit high speed Timer/Counter, Universal Serial Interface, Internal and External Interrupts, a 4-channel, 10-bit ADC, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes when Recover MCU.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counter, ADC, Analog Comparator, and Interrupt system to continue functioning before Recover MCU.

The Power-down mode saves the register contents, disabling all chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions after Recover MCU.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be re-programmed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer or by an On-chip boot code running on the AVR core when Recover MCU.

The ATtiny261/461/861 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits.

Port A is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability before Recover MCU.

As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running after Recover MCU.

Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability if Recover MCU.

As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running when Recover MCU.

For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written.

I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 – 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions after Recover MCU.

Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operation the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only before Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY261 Code

We can Break IC ATTINY261 Code, please view the IC ATTINY261 features for your reference:

High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller

Advanced RISC Architecture

– 123 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution

– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers

– Fully Static Operation when Break IC

 

Non-volatile Program and Data Memories

– 2/4/8K Byte of In-System Programmable Program Memory Flash

 

(ATtiny261/461/861)

Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles if Break IC

– 128/256/512 Bytes In-System Programmable EEPROM (ATtiny261/461/861)

Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles

– 128/256/512 Bytes Internal SRAM (ATtiny261/461/861) before Break IC

– Programming Lock for Self-Programming Flash Program and EEPROM Data Security

Peripheral Features

– 8/16-bit Timer/Counter with Prescaler and Two PWM Channels

– 8/10-bit High Speed Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler after Break IC

3 High Frequency PWM Outputs with Separate Output Compare Registers

Programmable Dead Time Generator

– Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector when Break IC

– 10-bit ADC

11 Single Ended Channels

16 Differential ADC Channel Pairs

15 Differential ADC Channel Pairs with Programmable Gain (1x, 8x, 20x, 32x)

– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator if Break IC

– On-chip Analog Comparator

Special Microcontroller Features

– debugWIRE On-chip Debug System

– In-System Programmable via SPI Port

– External and Internal Interrupt Sources before Break IC

– Low Power Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, and Power-down Modes

– Enhanced Power-on Reset Circuit

– Programmable Brown-out Detection Circuit

– Internal Calibrated Oscillator

I/O and Packages

– 16 Programmable I/O Lines after Break IC

– 20-pin PDIP, 20-pin SOIC and 32-pad MLF

Operating Voltage:

– 1.8 – 5.5V for ATtiny261V/461V/861V

– 2.7 – 5.5V for ATtiny261/461/861

Speed Grade:

– ATtiny261V/461V/861V: 0 – 4 MHz @ 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 – 5.5V when Break IC

– ATtiny261/461/861: 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz @ 4.5 – 5.5V

– Active Mode: 1 MHz, 1.8V: 380ìA

– Power-down Mode: 0.1ìA at 1.8V

Typical values contained in this data sheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized before Break IC.

The ATtiny261/461/861 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny261/461/861 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Mcu ATTINY4313A Code

We can Recover Mcu ATTINY4313A Code, please view the Mcu ATTINY4313A features for your reference :

The ATtiny2313A/4313 provides the following features: 2/4K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256 bytes EEPROM, 128/256 bytes SRAM, 18 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, a single-wire Interface for On-mcu Debugging, two flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART, Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes when Recover Mcu.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other mcu functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset if Recover Mcu.

In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology before Recover Mcu.

The On-mcu ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial interface, or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer before Recover Mcu.

By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic mcu, the Atmel ATtiny2313A/4313 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications after Recover Mcu.

The ATtiny2313A/4313 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits if Recover Mcu.

This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent before Recover Mcu.

Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.

For I/O Registers located in the extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically, this means “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR” after Recover Mcu.

Note that not all AVR devices include an extended I/O map.

For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written.

I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 – 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.

Some of the status flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such status flags when Recover Mcu.

The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only;

When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 – 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O

Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses after Recover Mcu.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller ATTINY4313 Code

We can Reverse engineering Microcontroller ATTINY4313 Code, please view the Microcontroller ATTINY4313 features for your reference:

The ATtiny2313A/4313 provides the following features: 2/4K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash, 128/256 bytes EEPROM, 128/256 bytes SRAM, 18 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, a single-wire Interface for On-chip Debugging. Two flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART, Universal Serial Interface with Start Condition Detector, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, and three software selectable power saving modes if Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption.

The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial interface, or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel ATtiny2313A/4313 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications when Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

The ATtiny2313A/4313 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits.

This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.

For I/O Registers located in the extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI” instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically, this means “LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”. Note that not all AVR devices include an extended I/O map. Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device has been characterized before Reverse engineering Microcontroller.

PostHeaderIcon Attack MCU PIC16CR84 Code

We can Attack MCU PIC16CR84 Code, please view the MCU PIC16CR84 features for your reference:

A variety of frequency ranges and packaging options are available. Depending on application and production requirements the proper device option can be selected using the information in this section when Attack MCU. When placing orders, please use the “PIC16F8X Product Identification System” at the back of this data sheet to specify the correct part number.

There are four device “types” as indicated in the device number.

1. F, as in PIC16F84. These devices have Flash program memory and operate over the standard voltage range after Attack MCU.

2. LF, as in PIC16LF84. These devices have Flash program memory and operate over an extended voltage range.

3. CR, as in PIC16CR83. These devices have ROM program memory and operate over the standard voltage range.

4. LCR, as in PIC16LCR84. These devices have ROM program memory and operate over an extended voltage range if Attack MCU.

When discussing memory maps and other architectural features, the use of F and CR also implies the LF and LCR versions.

2.1 Flash Devices

These devices are offered in the lower cost plastic package, even though the device can be erased and reprogrammed. This allows the same device to be used for prototype development and pilot programs as well as production after Attack MCU.

A further advantage of the electrically-erasable Flash version is that it can be erased and reprogrammed in-circuit, or by device programmers, such as Microchip’s PICSTART® Plus or PRO MATE® II programmers when Attack MCU.

2.2 Quick-Turnaround-Production (QTP) Devices

Microchip offers a QTP Programming Service for factory production orders. This service is made available for users who choose not to program a medium to high quantity of units and whose code patterns have stabilized before Attack MCU.

The devices have all Flash locations and configuration options already programmed by the factory. Certain code and prototype verification procedures do apply before production shipments are available after Attack MCU.

2.3 Serialized Quick-Turnaround-Production (SQTP SM ) Devices

Microchip offers the unique programming service where a few user-defined locations in each device are programmed with different serial numbers. The serial numbers  may  be  random,  pseudo-random or sequential if Attack MCU.

Serial programming allows each device to have a unique number which can serve as an entry-code, password or ID number.

Some of Microchip’s devices have a corresponding device where the program memory is a ROM. These devices give a cost savings over Microchip’s traditional user programmed devices (EPROM, EEPROM) when Attack MCU. ROM devices (PIC16CR8X) do not allow serialization information in the program memory space.

The user may program this information into the Data EEPROM if Attack MCU.

The high performance of the PIC16CXX family can be attributed to a number of architectural features commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To begin with, the PIC16CXX uses a Harvard architecture. This architecture has the program and data accessed from separate memories. So the device has a program memory bus and a data memory bus.

This improves bandwidth over traditional von Neumann architecture where program and data are fetched from the same memory (accesses over the same bus) after Attack MCU. Separating program and data memory further allows instructions to be sized differently than the 8-bit wide data word. PIC16CXX opcodes are 14-bits wide, enabling single word instructions.

The full 14-bit wide program memory bus fetches a 14-bit instruction in a single cycle. A two-stage pipeline overlaps fetch and execution of instructions (Example 3-1). Consequently, all instructions execute in a single cycle except for program branches when Attack MCU.

The PIC16F83 and PIC16CR83 address 512 x 14 of program memory, and the PIC16F84 and PIC16CR84 address 1K x 14 program memory. All program memory is internal before Attack MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Attack Microcontroller PIC16C710 Code

Attack Microcontroller PIC16C710 Code

 

We can Attack Microcontroller PIC16C710 Code, please view the Microcontroller PIC16C710 features for your reference:

· High-performance RISC CPU

· Only 35 single word instructions to learn

· All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle

· Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input DC – 200 ns instruction cycle

· Up to 2K x 14 words of Program Memory, up to 128 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) when Attack Microcontroller

· Interrupt capability

· Eight level deep hardware stack

· Direct, indirect, and relative addressing modes

· Power-on Reset (POR)

· Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)

· Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation if Attack Microcontroller

· Programmable code-protection

· Power saving SLEEP mode

· Selectable oscillator options

· Low-power, high-speed CMOS EPROM technology

· Fully static design

· Wide operating voltage range: 2.5V to 6.0V

· High Sink/Source Current 25/25 mA

· Commercial, Industrial and Extended temperature ranges after Attack Microcontroller

· Program Memory Parity Error Checking Circuitry with Parity Error Reset (PER) (PIC16C715)

· Low-power consumption:

– < 2 mA @ 5V, 4 MHz

– 15 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz

– < 1 µA typical standby current

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PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATTINY2313A Heximal

We can Recover MCU ATTINY2313A Heximal, please view the MCU ATTINY2313A features for your reference:

Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port D is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running before Recover MCU.

Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running and provided that the reset pin has not been disabled. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 21-3 on page 198. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. The Reset Input is an alternate function for PA2 and dW. The reset pin can also be used as a (weak) I/O pin. The ATtiny2313A/4313 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATtiny2313A/4313 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed when Recover MCU.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers before Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY2313 Code

We can Break IC ATTINY2313 Code, please view the IC ATTINY2313 features for your reference:

High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller

Advanced RISC Architecture

– 120 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution

– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers

– Fully Static Operation

– Up to 20 MIPS Throughput at 20 MHz

Data and Non-volatile Program and Data Memories

– 2/4K Bytes of In-System Self Programmable Flash

Endurance 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles

– 128/256 Bytes In-System Programmable EEPROM

Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles

– 128/256 Bytes Internal SRAM when Break IC

– Programming Lock for Flash Program and EEPROM Data Security

Peripheral Features

– One 8-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode

– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare and Capture Modes before Break IC

– Four PWM Channels

– On-chip Analog Comparator

– Programmable Watchdog Timer with On-chip Oscillator

– USI – Universal Serial Interface

– Full Duplex USART

Special Microcontroller Features

– debugWIRE On-chip Debugging

– In-System Programmable via SPI Port

– External and Internal Interrupt Sources

– Low-power Idle, Power-down, and Standby Modes

– Enhanced Power-on Reset Circuit if Break IC

– Programmable Brown-out Detection Circuit

– Internal Calibrated Oscillator

I/O and Packages

– 18 Programmable I/O Lines

– 20-pin PDIP, 20-pin SOIC, 20-pad MLF/VQFN

Operating Voltage

– 1.8 – 5.5V

Speed Grades

– 0 – 4 MHz @ 1.8 – 5.5V

– 0 – 10 MHz @ 2.7 – 5.5V

– 0 – 20 MHz @ 4.5 – 5.5V

Industrial Temperature Range: -40°C to +85°C

Low Power Consumption

In-System

Programmable Flash

– Active Mode

190 µA at 1.8V and 1MHz

– Idle Mode

24 µA at 1.8V and 1MHz before Break IC

– Power-down Mode

0.1 µA at 1.8V and +25°C

Port A is a 3-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability, except PA2 which has the RESET capability.

To use pin PA2 as I/O pin, instead of RESET pin, program (“0”) RSTDISBL fuse. As inputs, Port A pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running after Break IC.

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATTINY85V Software

We can Break IC ATTINY85V Software, please view the IC ATTINY85V features for your reference:

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-IC oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-IC peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-IC RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during Break IC.

Figure 2. External Clock Drive Configuration mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset before Break IC. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-IC hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory. In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes power down is the last instruction executed. The on-IC RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated.

The only exit from power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-IC RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize if Break IC.