Archive for February, 2010

PostHeaderIcon Break IC ATMEGA128V Heximal

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The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OCnx) from the Waveform Generator if either of the COMnx1:0 bits are set. However, the OCnx pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin when break IC heximal.

The Data Direction Register bit for the OCnx pin (DDR_OCnx) must be set as output before the OCnx value is visible on the pin. The port override function is generally independent of the Waveform Generation mode, but there are some exceptions if break IC heximal.

The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OCnx state before the output is enabled. Note that some COMnx1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation before break IC heximal.

The Waveform Generator uses the COMnx1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes, setting the COMnx1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the OCnx Register is to be performed on the next compare match when break IC heximal.

A change of the COMnx1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after the bits are written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOCnx strobe bits before break IC heximal.

The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) and Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits after break IC heximal.

The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COMnx1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM) when break IC heximal.

For non-PWM modes the COMnx1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared or toggle at a compare match.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering Microcontroller ATMEGA128P Binary

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In non-PWM Waveform Generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) bit.

Forcing compare match will not set the OCFnx Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OCnx pin will be updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COMn1:0 bits settings define whether the OCnx pin is set, cleared or toggled) when Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

 

All CPU writes to the TCNTn Register will block any compare match that occurs in the next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCRnx to be initialized to the same value as TCNTn without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled if Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

 

Since writing TCNTn in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one timer clock cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNTn when using any of the Output Compare channels, independent of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not before Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

 

If the value written to TCNTn equals the OCRnx value, the compare match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Do not write the TCNTn equal to TOP in PWM modes with variable TOP values after Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

The compare match for the TOP will be ignored and the counter will continue to 0xFFFF. Similarly, do not write the TCNTn value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is downcounting when Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

The setup of the OCnx should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OCnx value is to use the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OCnx Register keeps its value even when changing between Waveform Generation modes if Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

Be aware that the COMnx1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare value. Changing the COMnx1:0 bits will take effect immediately.

The Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses the COMnx1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OCnx) state at the next compare match. Secondly the COMnx1:0 bits control the OCnx pin output source before Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COMnx1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OCnx state, the reference is for the internal OCnx Register, not the OCnx pin. If a system reset occur, the OCnx Register is reset to “0” after Reverse engineering Microcontroller binary.

PostHeaderIcon Recover Chip ATMEGA88PV Firmware

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The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNTn with the Output Compare Register (OCRnx). If TCNT equals OCRnx the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCFnx) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIEnx = 1), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt when recover chip firmware.

The OCFnx Flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCFnx Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits and Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits if recover chip firmware.

The TOP and BOTTOM signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation.

A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (i.e., counter resolution). In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period time for waveforms generated by the Waveform Generator before recover chip firmware.

Figure 52 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The small “n” in the register and bit names indicates the device number (n = n for Timer/Counter n), and the “x” indicates Output Compare unit (A/B/C). The elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Output Compare unit are gray shaded after recover chip firmware.

The OCRnx Register is double buffered when using any of the twelve Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCRnx Compare Register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting sequence when recover chip firmware.

The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free. The OCRnx Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCRnx Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCRnx directly if recover chip firmware.

The content of the OCR1x (Buffer or Compare) Register is only changed by a write operation (the Timer/Counter does not update this register automatically as the TCNT1 and ICR1 Register). Therefore OCR1x is not read via the high byte temporary register (TEMP). However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first as when accessing other 16-bit registers. Writing the OCRnx Registers must be done via the TEMP Register since the compare of all 16 bits is done continuously before recover chip firmware.

The high byte (OCRnxH) has to be written first. When the high byte I/O location is written by the CPU, the TEMP Register will be updated by the value written. Then when the low byte (OCRnxL) is written to the lower eight bits, the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits of either the OCRnx buffer or OCRnx Compare Register in the same system clock cycle after recover chip firmware.

PostHeaderIcon Break MICROPROCESSOR ATMEGA88PA Firmware

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The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNTn with the Output Compare Register (OCRnx). If TCNT equals OCRnx the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCFnx) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIEnx =1), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt when break microprocessor firmware.

The OCFnx Flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCFnx Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to operating mode set by the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits and Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits if break microprocessor firmware.

The TOP and BOTTOM signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (See“Modes of Operation” on page 147.)

A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (i.e., counter resolution). In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period time for waveforms generated by the Waveform Generator before break microprocessor firmware.

Figure 52 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The small “n” in the register and bit names indicates the device number (n = n for Timer/Counter n), and the “x” indicates Output Compare unit (A/B/C). The elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Output Compare unit are gray shaded after break microprocessor firmware.

The OCRnx Register is double buffered when using any of the twelve Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCRnx Compare Register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting sequence when break microprocessor firmware.

The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.

The OCRnx Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCRnx Buffer Register, and if double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCRnx directly if break microprocessor firmware.

The content of the OCR1x (Buffer or Compare) Register is only changed by a write operation (the Timer/Counter does not update this register automatically as the TCNT1 and ICR1 Register). Therefore OCR1x is not read via the high byte temporary register (TEMP). However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first as when accessing other 16-bit registers before break microprocessor firmware.

Writing the OCRnx Registers must be done via the TEMP Register since the compare of all 16 bits is done continuously. The high byte (OCRnxH) has to be written first. When the high byte I/O location is written by the CPU, the TEMP Register will be updated by the value written. Then when the low byte (OCRnxL) is written to the lower eight bits, the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits of either the OCRnx buffer or OCRnx Compare Register in the same system clock cycle after break microprocessor firmware.

PostHeaderIcon Recover IC ATMEGA88A Code

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The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme. The noise canceler input is monitored over four samples, and all four must be equal for changing the output that in turn is used by the edge detector when recover IC code.

The noise canceler is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceler (ICNCn) bit in Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCRnB). When enabled the noise canceler introduces additional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied to the input, to the update of the ICRn Register. The noise canceler uses the system clock and is therefore not affected by the prescaler if recover IC code.

The main challenge when using the Input Capture unit is to assign enough processor capacity for handling the incoming events. The time between two events is critical. If the processor has not read the captured value in the ICRn Register before the next event occurs after recover IC code, the ICRn will be overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of the capture will be incorrect before recover IC code.

When using the Input Capture interrupt, the ICRn Register should be read as early in the interrupt handler routine as possible. Even though the Input Capture interrupt has relatively high priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the maximum number of clock cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests after recover IC code.

Using the Input Capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is actively changed during operation, is not recommended when recover IC code.

Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed after each capture. Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as possible after the ICRn Register has been read if recover IC code.

After a change of the edge, the Input Capture Flag (ICFn) must be cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit location). For measuring frequency only, the clearing of the ICFn Flag is not required (if an interrupt handler is used) before recover IC code.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse engineering MCU ATMEGA48PV Code

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When a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the Input Capture Pin (ICPn), alternatively on the analog Comparator output (ACO), and this change confirms to the setting of the edge detector, a capture will be triggered when Reverse engineering MCU Code.

When a capture is triggered, the 16-bit value of the counter (TCNTn) is written to the Input Capture Register (ICRn). The Input Capture Flag (ICFn) is set at the same system clock as the TCNTn value is copied into ICRn Register if Reverse engineering MCU Code.

If enabled (TICIEn = 1), the input capture flag generates an input capture interrupt. The ICFn flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed.

Alternatively the ICFn flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. Reading the 16-bit value in the Input Capture Register (ICRn) is done by first reading the low byte (ICRnL) and then the high byte (ICRnH) before Reverse engineering MCU Code.

When the low byte is read the high byte is copied into the high byte Temporary Register (TEMP). When the CPU reads the ICRnH I/O location it will access the TEMP Register after Reverse engineering MCU Code.

The ICRn Register can only be written when using a Waveform Generation mode that utilizes the ICRn Register for defining the counter’s TOP value. In these cases the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits must be set before the TOP value can be written to the ICRn Register if Reverse engineering MCU Code.

When writing the ICRn Register the high byte must be written to the ICRnH I/O location before the low byte is written to ICRnL. The main trigger source for the input capture unit is the Input Capture Pin (ICPn). Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the analog comparator output as trigger source for the input capture unit before Reverse engineering MCU Code.

The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source by setting the analog Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control and Status Register (ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture after Reverse engineering MCU Code.

The input capture flag must therefore be cleared after the change. Both the Input Capture Pin (ICPn) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are sampled using the same technique as for the Tn pin. The edge detector is also identical. However, when the noise canceler is enabled, additional logic is inserted before the edge detector, which increases the delay by four system clock cycles. Note that the input of the noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled unless the Timer/Counter is set in a Waveform Generation mode that uses ICRn to define TOP when Reverse engineering MCU Code.

PostHeaderIcon Break Microprocessor ATMEGA48P Flash

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The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CSn2:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter control Register B (TCCRnB) when break microprocessor flash.

The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional counter unit. Figure 50 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings if break microprocessor flash.

The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High (TCNTnH) containing the upper eight bits of the counter, and Counter Low (TCNTnL) containing the lower eight bits. The TCNTnH Register can only be indirectly accessed by the CPU before break microprocessor flash.

When the CPU does an access to the TCNTnH I/O location, the CPU accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP). The temporary register is updated with the TCNTnH value when the TCNTnL is read, and TCNTnH is updated with the temporary register value when TCNTnL is written after break microprocessor flash.

This allows the CPU to read or write the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus. It is important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNTn Register when the counter is counting that will give unpredictable results when break microprocessor flash.

The special cases are described in the sections where they are of importance. Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented at each timer clock (clkTn) if break microprocessor flash.

The clkTn can be generated from an external or internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits (CSn2:0). When no clock source is selected (CSn2:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNTn value can be accessed by the CPU, independent of whether clkTn is present or not before break microprocessor flash.

A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations. The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the Waveform Generation mode bits (WGMn3:0) located in the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B (TCCRnA and TCCRnB) after break microprocessor flash.

There are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs OCnx. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see “Modes of Operation” on page 147 when break microprocessor flash.

The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set according to the mode of operation selected by the WGMn3:0 bits. TOVn can be used for generating a CPU interrupt if break microprocessor flash.

The Timer/Counter incorporates an input capture unit that can capture external events and give them a time-stamp indicating time of occurrence before break microprocessor flash.

The external signal indicating an event, or multiple events, can be applied via the ICPn pin or alternatively, for the Timer/Counter1 only, via the Analog Comparator unit. The time-stamps can then be used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle, and other features of the signal applied. Alternatively the time-stamps can be used for creating a log of the events after break microprocessor flash.

The Input Capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 51. The elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the input capture unit are gray shaded. The small “n” in register and bit names indicates the Timer/Counter number.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU Microchip CF755 Dump

Recover MCU Microchip CF755 Dump

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The PIC16C5X from Microchip Technology of recover MCU is a family of low-cost, high performance, 8-bit, fully static, EPROM/ ROM-based CMOS microcontrollers. It employs a RISC architecture with only 33 single word/single cycle instructions. All instructions are single cycle (200 ns) except for program branches which take two cycles. The PIC16C5X delivers performance an order of magnitude higher than its competitors in the same price category. The 12-bit wide instructions are highly symmetrical resulting in 2:1 code compression over other 8-bit microcontrollers in its class. The easy to use and easy to remember instruction set reduces development time significantly for recover MCU.

The PIC16C5X products are equipped with special features that reduce system cost and power requirements.

The Power-On Reset (POR) and Device Reset Timer (DRT) eliminate the need for external reset circuitry.

There are four oscillator configurations to choose from, including the power-saving LP (Low Power) oscillator and cost saving RC oscillator. Power saving SLEEP mode, Watchdog Timer and code protection features improve system cost, power and reliability.

The UV erasable CERDIP packaged versions are ideal for code development, while the cost-effective One Time Programmable (OTP) versions are suitable for production in any volume. The customer can take full advantage of Microchip’s price leadership in OTP microcontrollers while benefiting from the OTP’s flexibility after PIC MCU recovery.

The PIC16C5X products are supported by a full-featured macro assembler, a software simulator, an in-circuit emulator, a ‘C’ compiler, fuzzy logic support tools, a low-cost development programmer, and a full featured programmer. All the tools are supported on IBM® PC and compatible machines.

The PIC16C5X series fits perfectly in applications ranging from high-speed automotive and appliance motor control to low-power remote transmitters/receivers, pointing devices and telecom processors. The EPROM technology makes customizing application programs (transmitter codes, motor speeds, receiver frequencies, etc.) extremely fast and convenient. The small footprint packages, for through hole or surface mounting, make this microcontroller series perfect for applications with space limitations. Low-cost, low-power, high performance, ease of use and I/O flexibility make the PIC MCU recovery.

PIC16C5X series very versatile even in areas where no microcontroller use has been considered before (e.g., timer functions, replacement of “glue” logic in larger systems, coprocessor applications). tures that reduce system cost and power requirements.

The Power-On Reset (POR) and Device Reset Timer (DRT) eliminate the need for external reset circuitry when recover mcu.

There are four oscillator configurations to choose from, including the power-saving LP (Low Power) oscillator and cost saving RC oscillator. Power saving SLEEP mode, Watchdog Timer and code protection features improve system cost, power and reliability.

The UV erasable CERDIP packaged versions are ideal for code development, while the cost-effective One Time Programmable (OTP) versions are suitable for production in any volume. The customer can take full advantage of Microchip’s price leadership in OTP microcontrollers while benefiting from the OTP’s flexibility for pic mcu crack.

The PIC16C5X products are supported by a full-featured macro assembler, a software simulator, an in-circuit emulator, a ‘C’ compiler, fuzzy logic support tools, a low-cost development programmer, and a full featured programmer. All the tools are supported on IBM® PC and compatible machines.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering MCU ATMEGA48P Program

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Not all 16-bit accesses uses the Temporary Register for the high byte. Reading the OCRnA/B/C 16-bit registers does not involve using the Temporary Register after Reverse Engineering MCU program.

To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read, the low byte must be read before the high byte when Reverse Engineering MCU program.

The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit timer registers assuming that no interrupts updates the temporary register. The same principle can be used directly for accessing the OCRnA/B/C and ICRn Registers. Note that when using “C”, the compiler handles the 16-bit access if Reverse Engineering MCU program.

The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair. It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations before Reverse Engineering MCU program. If an interrupt occurs between the two instructions accessing the 16-bit register, and the interrupt code updates the temporary register by accessing the same or any other of the 16-bit Timer Registers, then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be corrupted after Reverse Engineering MCU program.

Therefore, when both the main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register, the main code must disable the interrupts during the 16-bit access if Reverse Engineering MCU program.

The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNTn Register contents. Reading any of the OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle when Reverse Engineering MCU program.

If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all registers written, then the high byte only needs to be written once. However, note that the same rule of atomic operation described previously also applies in this case before Reverse Engineering MCU program.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MICROPROCESSOR ATMEGA1280PA Flash

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The Input Capture Register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external (edge triggered) event on either the Input Capture pin (ICPn) or on the Analog Comparator pins when Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

 

The Input Capture unit includes a digital filtering unit (Noise Canceler) for reducing the chance of capturing noise spikes. The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be defined by either the OCRnA Register, the ICRn Register, or by a set of fixed values if Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

 

When using OCRnA as TOP value in a PWM mode, the OCRnA Register can not be used for generating a PWM output. However, the TOP value will in this case be double buffered allowing the TOP value to be changed in run time before Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

If a fixed TOP value is required, the ICRn Register can be used as an alternative, freeing the OCRnA to be used as PWM output.

The TCNTn, OCRnA/B/C, and ICRn are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the AVR CPU via the 8-bit data bus after Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two read or write operations. Each 16-bit timer has a single 8-bit register for temporary storing of the high byte of the 16-bit access when Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

The same Temporary Register is shared between all 16-bit registers within each 16-bit timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the 16-bit read or write operation if Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

When the low byte of a 16-bit register is written by the CPU, the high byte stored in the Temporary Register, and the low byte written are both copied into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle before Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.

When the low byte of a 16-bit register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the Temporary Register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read after Recover MICROPROCESSOR flash.