Archive for January, 2010

PostHeaderIcon Recover CHIP ATMEGA128PV Flash

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The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGMn3:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed.

The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 16-bit value (MAX = 0xFFFF) and then restarts from the BOTTOM (0x0000) when recover chip flash.

In normal operation the Timer/Counter Over-flow Flag (TOVn) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn becomes zero.

The TOVn Flag in this case behaves like a 17th bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOVn Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software if recover chip flash.

There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime. The Input Capture unit is easy to use in Normal mode. However, observe that the maximum interval between the external events must not exceed the resolution of the counter before recover chip flash.

 

If the interval between events are too long, the timer overflow interrupt or the prescaler must be used to extend the resolution for the capture unit. The Output Compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time after recover chip flash.

Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time. In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGMn3:0 = 4 or 12), the OCRnA or ICRn Register are used to manipulate the counter resolution.

In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNTn) matches either the OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 4) or the ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 12). The OCRnA or ICRn define the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution when recover chip flash.

This mode allows greater control of the compare match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events. The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 54. The counter value (TCNTn) increases until a compare match occurs with either OCRnA or ICRn, and then counter (TCNTn) is cleared if recover chip flash.

An interrupt can be generated at each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by either using the OCFnA or ICFn Flag according to the register used to define the TOP value. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value.

 

However, changing the TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature before recover chip flash.

If the new value written to OCRnA or ICRn is lower than the current value of TCNTn, the counter will miss the compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur. In many cases this feature is not desirable. An alternative will then be to use the fast PWM mode using OCRnA for defining TOP (WGMn3:0 = 15) since the OCRnA then will be double buffered after recover chip flash.

For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OCnA output can be set to toggle its logical level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode (COMnA1:0 = 1). The OCnA value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output (DDR_OCnA = 1).

The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOCnA = fclk_I/O/2 when OCRnA is set to zero (0x0000). The waveform frequency is defined by the following equation.

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The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC0B pin when Reverse Engineering PLD software.

Bit 2 – OCF0B: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare B Match Flag

The OCF0B bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter and the data in OCR0B – Output Compare Register0 B. OCF0B is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector if Reverse Engineering PLD software.

Alternatively, OCF0B is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0B (Timer/Counter Compare B Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF0B are set, the Timer/Counter Compare Match Interrupt is executed before Reverse Engineering PLD software.

Bit 1 – OCF0A: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare A Match Flag

The OCF0A bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the data in OCR0A – Output Compare Register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector after Reverse Engineering PLD software.

Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A (Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF0A are set, the Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt is executed when Reverse Engineering PLD software.

Bit 0 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag

The bit TOV0 is set when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector if Reverse Engineering PLD software.

Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV0 are set, the Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is executed before Reverse Engineering PLD software.

The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM02:0 bit setting. Refer to Table 76, “Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description” on page 130 after Reverse Engineering PLD software.

PostHeaderIcon Break MCU ATMEGA1280PV Code

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The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode. However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when operating in PWM mode when break MCU Code.

When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit.

The OC0A output is changed according to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare if break MCU Code.

A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0A as TOP. The FOC0A bit is always read as zero. The FOC0B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode before break MCU Code.

However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR0B is written when operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0B bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit after break MCU Code.

The OC0B output is changed according to its COM0B1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0B bit is implemented as a strobe when break MCU Code.

Therefore it is the value present in the COM0B1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare. A FOC0B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0B as TOP if break MCU Code.

The FOC0B bit is always read as zero. The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter before break MCU Code.

Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes) the Compare Match on the following timer clock.

Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match between TCNT0 and the OCR0x Registers after break MCU Code.

The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC0A pin when break MCU Code.

PostHeaderIcon Recover MCU ATMEGA1280P Eeprom

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The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024). The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode when recover MCU EEPROM.

If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values if recover MCU EEPROM.

At the very start of period 2 in Figure 44 OCnx has a transition from high to low even though there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match before recover MCU EEPROM.

OCR0A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 44. When the OCR0A value is MAX the OCn pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting Compare Match after recover MCU EEPROM.

To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match. The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR0A, and for that reason misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the way up when recover MCU EEPROM.

The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt Flags are set. Figure 45 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation if recover MCU EEPROM.

The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM mode. These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0B) behavior. If one or both of the COM0B1:0 bits are set, the OC0B output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to before recover MCU EEPROM.

However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver. When OC0B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0B1:0 bits depends on the WGM02:0 bit setting. Table 70 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM) after recover MCU EEPROM.

Combined with the WGM02 bit found in the TCCR0B Register, these bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used when recover MCU EEPROM.

Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes.

PostHeaderIcon Break MICROCONTROLLER ATMEGA640PA Flash

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The phase correct PWM mode (WGM02:0 = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM when break microcontroller flash.

 

TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 1, and OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 5. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match between TCNT0 and OCR0x while upcounting, and set on the Compare Match while down-counting if break microcontroller flash.

 

In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications before break microcontroller flash.

 

In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP. When the counter reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle after break microcontroller flash.

The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 44. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs if break microcontroller flash.

The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent Compare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0. The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM when break microcontroller flash.

The Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM value. In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins.

Setting the COM0x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0x1:0 to three: Setting the COM0A0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin after break microcontroller flash.

The actual OC0x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output.

The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following equation when break microcontroller flash.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering IC ATMEGA640A Heximal

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The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024). As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the counter counts from MAX to 0x00 when Reverse engineering IC heximal.

 

The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM02:0 = 3 or 7) provides a high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation if Reverse engineering IC heximal.

The counter counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 7.

 

In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match between TCNT0 and OCR0x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode, the output is set on Compare Match and cleared at BOTTOM before Reverse engineering IC heximal.

Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM mode that use dual-slope operation.

This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost after Reverse engineering IC heximal.

 

In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP value. The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 43. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation when Reverse engineering IC heximal.

 

The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent Compare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.

 

The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value if Reverse engineering IC heximal.

 

In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins. Setting the COM0x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0x1:0 to three: Setting the COM0A1:0 bits to one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the WGM02 bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin from Reverse engineering IC heximal.

The actual OC0x value will only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0, and clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM) when reverse engineering IC heximal.

PostHeaderIcon Break Microcontroller ATMEGA640PV Binary

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In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM02:0 = 2), the OCR0A Register is used to manipulate the counter resolution.

In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The OCR0A defines the top value for the counter, hence also its resolution when break microcontroller binary.

This mode allows greater control of the Compare Match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.

The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 42. The counter value (TCNT0) increases until a Compare Match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter (TCNT0) is cleared if break microcontroller binary.

An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the OCF0A Flag.

If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature before break microcontroller binary.

If the new value written to OCR0A is lower than the current value of TCNT0, the counter will miss the Compare Match.

The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the Compare Match can occur after break microcontroller binary.

For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical level on each Compare Match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode (COM0A1:0 = 1). The OC0A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction for the pin is set to output if break microcontroller binary.

The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following equation after break microcontroller binary;

PostHeaderIcon Break Microcontroller PIC24FJ16GA002 Heximal

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The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM02:0) and Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits when break microcontroller heximal.

The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM0x1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM) if break microcontroller heximal.

For non-PWM modes the COM0x1:0 bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a Compare Match (See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 146.).For detailed timing information see “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” before break microcontroller heximal.

The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM02:0 = 0). In this mode the counting direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed after break microcontroller heximal.

The counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bottom (0x00) when break microcontroller heximal.

In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 Flag in this case behaves like a ninth bit, except that it is only set, not cleared if break microcontroller heximal.

However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV0 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software before break microcontroller heximal.

There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime. The Output Compare Unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time after break microcontroller heximal.

Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.

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Program Memory Organization:

The PIC16F7X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K word x 14-bit program memory space. The PIC16F77/76 devices have 8K words of FLASH program memory and the PIC16F73/74 devices have 4K words. The program memory maps for PIC16F7X devices are shown in Figure 2-1. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. in the PICmicro Mid-Range Reference Manual when Recover MCU

The 28-pin devices have 11 interrupts, while the 40/44-pin devices have 12

· The 28-pin devices have 5 A/D input channels, while the 40/44-pin devices have 8

· The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on the 40/44-pin devices

The RESET Vector is at 0000h and the Interrupt Vector is at 0004h after Recover MCU

Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as

static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special

Function Registers. Some frequently used Special if Recover MCU

Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in

another bank for code reduction and quicker access. implemented address will cause a wraparound. in the PICmicro Mid-Range Reference Manual

The 28-pin devices have 11 interrupts, while the 40/44-pin devices have 12

· The 28-pin devices have 5 A/D input channels, while the 40/44-pin devices have 8

· The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on the 40/44-pin devices for the purpose of Recover MCU.

PostHeaderIcon Reverse Engineering MCU ATMEGA640P Flash

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The Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0x) state at the next Compare Match when reverse engineering MCU Flash.

Also, the COM0x1:0 bits control the OC0x pin output source. Figure 41 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0x1:0 bit setting if reverse engineering MCU Flash.

The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM0x1:0 bits are shown before reverse engineering MCU Flash.

When referring to the OC0x state, the reference is for the internal OC0x Register, not the OC0x pin. If a system reset occur, the OC0x Register is reset to “0” after reverse engineering MCU Flash.

The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0x) from the Waveform Generator if either of the COM0x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC0x pin direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin when reverse engineering MCU Flash.

The Data Direction Register bit for the OC0x pin (DDR_OC0x) must be set as output before the OC0x value is visible on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode if reverse engineering MCU Flash.

The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0x state before the output is enabled. Note that some COM0x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of operation. See “8-bit Timer/Counter Register Description” before reverse engineering MCU Flash.

The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits differently in Normal, CTC, and PWM modes. For all modes, setting the COM0x1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action on the OC0x Register is to be performed on the next Compare Match after reverse engineering MCU Flash.

For compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 70 on page 128. For fast PWM mode, refer to Table 71 on page 128, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 72 on page 129.

A change of the COM0x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first Compare Match after the bits are written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the FOC0x strobe bits when reverse engineering MCU Flash.